Advertisement

Computer-Designed Nano-Fibrous Scaffolds

  • Laura A. Smith
  • Peter X. MaEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 868)

Abstract

Nano-fibrous scaffolding mimics aspects of the extracellular matrix to improve cell function and tissue formation. Although several methods exist to fabricate nano-fibrous scaffolds, the combination of phase separation with reverse solid freeform fabrication (SFF) allows for scaffolds with features at three different orders of magnitude to be formed, which is not easily achieved with other nano-fiber fabrication methods. This technique allows for the external shape and internal pore structure to be precisely controlled in an easily repeatable manner, while the nano-fibrous wall architecture facilitates cellular attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of the cells. In this chapter, we examine the fabrication of computer-designed nano-fibrous scaffolds utilizing thermally induced phase separation and reverse SFF, and the benefits of such scaffolds over more traditional tissue engineering scaffolds on cellular function and tissue regeneration.

Key words

Nano-fibers Bone tissue engineering Scaffolds Solid freeform fabrication Phase separation 

References

  1. 1.
    Langer R, Vacanti J (1993) Tissue engineering. Science 260:920–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ma PX (2008) Biomimetic materials for tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60:184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kadler K (2004) Matrix loading: assembly of extracellular matrix collagen fibrils during embryogenesis. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 72:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nam YS, Park TG (1999) Porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds prepared by thermally induced phase separation. J Biomed Mater Res 47:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee SH, Kim BS, Kim SH, Kang SW, Kim YH (2004) Thermally produced biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Macromol Biosci 4:802–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang RY, Ma PX (1999) Poly(alpha-hydroxyl acids) hydroxyapatite porous composites for bone-tissue engineering. I. Preparation and morphology. J Biomed Mater Res 44:446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma PX, Zhang RY, Xiao G, Franceschi R (2001) Engineering new bone tissue in vitro on highly porous poly(alpha-hydroxyl acids)/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res 54:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ma PX, Zhang RY (2001) Microtubular architecture of biodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res 56:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma PX, Zhang RY (1999) Porous poly(l-lactic acid)/apatite composites created by biomimetic process. J Biomed Mater Res 45:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma PX, Zhang RY (1999) Synthetic nano-scale fibrous extracellular matrix. J Biomed Mater Res 46:60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen VJ, Ma PX (2004) Nano-fibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds with interconnected spherical macropores. Biomaterials 25:2065–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen VJ, Smith LA, Ma PX (2006) Bone regeneration on computer-designed nano-fibrous scaffolds. Biomaterials 27:3973–3979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu XH, Smith LA, Wei G, Won YJ, Ma PX (2005) Surface engineering of nano-fibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds via self-assembly technique for bone tissue engineering. J Biomed Nanotechnol 1:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu XH, Won YJ, Ma PX (2005) Surface modification of interconnected porous scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 74A:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu XH, Won YJ, Ma PX (2006) Porogen-induced surface modification of nano-fibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 27:3980–3987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wei G, Ma PX (2006) Macroporous and nanofibrous polymer scaffolds and polymer/bone-like apatite composite scaffolds generated by sugar spheres. J Biomed Mater Res A 78:306–315Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wei G, Jin Q, Giannobile W, Ma PX (2007) The enhancement of osteogenesis by nano-fibrous scaffolds incorporating rhBMP-7 nanospheres. Biomaterials 28:2087–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jin Q, Wei G, Lin Z et al (2008) Nanofibrous scaffolds incorporating PDGF-BB microspheres induce chemokine expression and tissue neogenesis in vivo. PLoS One 3:e1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee M, Dunn J, Wu B (2005) Scaffold fabrication by indirect three-dimensional printing. Biomaterials 26:4281–4289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin C, Kikuchi N, Hollister S (2004) A novel method for biomaterial scaffold internal architecture design to match bone elastic properties with desired porosity. J Biomech 37:623–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma PX, Langer R (1999) Fabrication of biodegradable polymer foams for cell transplantation and tissue engineering. In: Morgan J, Yarmush M (eds) Tissue engineering methods and protocols. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, NJ, pp 47–56Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang RY, Ma PX (2000) Synthetic nano-fibrillar extracellular matrices with predesigned macroporous architectures. J Biomed Mater Res 52:430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taboas J, Maddox R, Krebsbach P, Hollister S (2003) Indirect solid free form fabrication of local and global porous, biomimetic and composite 3D polymer-ceramic scaffolds. Biomaterials 24:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mattioli-Belmonte M, Vozzi G, Kyriakidou K et al (2008) Rapid-prototyped and salt-leached PLGA scaffolds condition cell morpho-functional behavior. J Biomed Mater Res A 85:466–476Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith LA, Beck J, Ma PX (2007) Fabrication and tissue formation with nano-fibrous scaffolds. In: Kumar C (ed) Nanotechnologies for tissue, cell and organ engineering. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Woo KM, Jun JH, Chen VJ et al (2007) Nano-fibrous scaffolding promotes osteoblasts differentiation and biomeneralization. Biomaterials 28:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Woo KM, Chen VJ, Ma PX (2003) Nano-fibrous scaffolding architecture selectively enhances protein adsorption contributing to cell attachment. J Biomed Mater Res A 67:531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith LA, Liu X, Hu J, Wang P, Ma P (2009) Enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by nanofibers. Tissue Eng 15:1855–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu J, Liu X, Ma PX (2008) Induction of osteoblast differentiation phenotype on poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibrous matrix. Biomaterials 29:3815–3821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schindler M, Ahmed I, Kamal J et al (2005) A synthetic nanofibrillar matrix promotes in vivolike organization and morphogenesis for cells in culture. Biomaterials 26:5624–5631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shih YV, Chen CN, Tsai SW, Wang YJ, Lee OK (2006) Growth of mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun type I collagen nanofibers. Stem Cells 24:2391–2397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nur-E-Kamal A, Ahmed I, Kamal J, Schindler M, Meiners S (2005) Three dimensional nanofibrillar surfaces induces the activation of Rac. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 331:428–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li MY, Mondrinos MJ, Gandhi MR, Ko FK, Weiss AS, Lelkes PI (2005) Electrospun protein fibers as matrices for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 26:5999–6008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shin M, Yoshimoto H, Vacanti JP (2004) In vivo bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells on a novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. Tissue Eng 10:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yoshimoto H, Shin YM, Terai H, Vacanti JP (2003) A biodegradable nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning and its potential for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 24:2077–2082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Woo KM, Chen VJ, Jung H et al (2009) Comparative evaluation of nano-fibrous scaffolding for bone regeneration in critical sized calvarial defects. Tissue Eng 15:2155–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biologic and Materials SciencesThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Macromolecular Science and Engineering CenterThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations