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Direct Fabrication as a Patient-Targeted Therapeutic in a Clinical Environment

  • Dietmar W. HutmacherEmail author
  • Maria Ann Woodruff
  • Kevin Shakesheff
  • Robert E. Guldberg
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 868)

Abstract

A paradigm shift is taking place in orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. This transition from using medical devices and tissue grafts towards the utilization of a tissue engineering approach combines biodegradable scaffolds with cells and/or biological molecules in order to repair and/or regenerate tissues. One of the potential benefits offered by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies is the ability to create such biodegradable scaffolds with highly reproducible architecture and compositional variation across the entire scaffold due to their tightly controlled computer-driven fabrication. Many of these biologically activated materials can induce bone formation at ectopic and orthotopic sites, but they have not yet gained widespread use due to several continuing limitations, including poor mechanical properties, difficulties in intraoperative handling, lack of porosity suitable for cellular and vascular infiltration, and suboptimal degradation characteristics. In this chapter, we define scaffold properties and attempt to provide some broad criteria and constraints for scaffold design and fabrication in combination with growth factors for bone engineering applications. Lastly, we comment on the current and future developments in the field, such as the functionalization of novel composite scaffolds with combinations of growth factors designed to promote cell attachment, cell survival, vascular ingrowth, and osteoinduction.

Key words

Tissue engineering Scaffolds Rapid prototyping Composites Mesenchymal stem cells Growth factors 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietmar W. Hutmacher
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Ann Woodruff
    • 2
  • Kevin Shakesheff
    • 3
  • Robert E. Guldberg
    • 4
  1. 1.Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of TechnologyKelvin GroveAustralia
  2. 2.Biomaterials and Tissue Morphology Group, Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of TechnologyKelvin GroveAustralia
  3. 3.School of Pharmacy, Wolfson Centre for Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, and Modelling (STEM), Centre for Biomolecular Sciences (CBS)University of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  4. 4.Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

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