Isolation of Apoplastic Fluid from Leaf Tissue by the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Technique

  • Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 835)


Upon infection of plants by pathogens, at least at the early stages of infection, the interaction between the two organisms occurs in the apoplast. To study the molecular basis of host susceptibility vs. resistance on the one hand, and pathogen virulence vs. avirulence on the other, the identification of extracellular compounds such as pathogen effectors that determine the outcome of the interaction is essential. Here, I describe the vacuum infiltration-centrifugation technique, which is an extremely simple and straightforward method to explore one of the most important battlefields of a plant–pathogen interaction; the apoplast.

Key words

Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation technique Apoplast Apoplastic fluid Intercellular washing fluid Plant–pathogen interaction Extracellular space Communication Effector Avirulence Resistance 



Wladimir Tameling is thanked for his help with making the pictures and for critical reading of the manuscript. I thank the Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG), which is part of the Netherlands Genomics Initiative and NWO, for support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of PhytopathologyWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for BioSystems GenomicsWageningenThe Netherlands

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