Manipulation of Gene Function in Xenopus laevis

  • Mizuho S. Mimoto
  • Jan L. Christian
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 770)


Xenopus laevis embryos are particularly well suited to address questions requiring either knockdown or overexpression of genes in a tissue-specific fashion during vertebrate embryonic development. These manipulations are achieved by targeted injection of either antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or synthetic mRNAs, respectively, into the early embryo. Herein we offer detailed protocols describing how to design and perform these experiments successfully, as well as a brief discussion of considerations for performing a microarray analysis in this organism.

Key words

Xenopus laevis embryogenesis microinjection morpholinos gene knockdown microarray 



This work was supported by grants from the NIH (RO3HD058841 and RO1HD37976) and Shriners’ Hospital Research Foundation to JLC. MM was supported by NIH grant T32HD049309.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mizuho S. Mimoto
    • 1
  • Jan L. Christian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Developmental BiologyOregon Health and Science University, School of MedicinePortlandUSA

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