Plant Immunity pp 195-209 | Cite as

Imaging Fluorescently Tagged Phytophthora Effector Proteins Inside Infected Plant Tissue

  • Petra C. Boevink
  • Paul R. J. Birch
  • Stephen C. Whisson
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 712)


Assays to determine the role of pathogen effectors within an infected plant cell are yielding valuable information about which host processes are targeted to allow successful pathogen colonization. However, this does not necessarily inform on the cellular location of these interactions, or if these effector–virulence target interactions occur only in the presence of the pathogen. Here, we describe techniques to allow the subcellular localization of pathogen effectors inside infected plant cells or tissues, based largely on infiltration of plant tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its delivery of DNA encoding fluorescent protein-tagged effectors, and subsequent confocal microscopy.

Key words

Effector Fluorescent protein Oomycete Oomycete transformation Agroinfiltration 



PCB and SW are funded by the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate (RERAD) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), UK. PRJB is funded by the University of Dundee, UK, and the BBSRC.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petra C. Boevink
    • 1
  • Paul R. J. Birch
    • 2
  • Stephen C. Whisson
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Pathology ProgrammeScottish Crop Research InstituteDundeeUK
  2. 2.Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life SciencesUniversity of Dundee at SCRIDundeeUK

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