Chemotaxis pp 179-198 | Cite as

Chemokine Receptor Dimerization and Chemotaxis

  • José Miguel Rodríguez-Frade
  • Laura Martinez Muñoz
  • Borja L. Holgado
  • Mario Mellado
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 571)

Summary

A broad array of biological responses ranging from cell polarization, movement, immune and inflammatory responses, as well as prevention of HIV-1 infection, are triggered by the chemokines, a family of structurally related chemoattractant proteins that bind to specific seven-transmembrane receptors linked to G proteins. Although it was initially believed that chemokine receptors act as monomeric entities, it has now been shown that they function as oligomers. Chemokine receptor homo– and heterodimers are found on the cell membrane; binding to their ligands stabilizes specific receptor conformations and activates distinct signaling cascades. Thorough analysis of the conformations adopted by the receptors at the membrane is therefore a prerequisite for understanding the function of these inflammatory mediators.

For study of the chemokine receptor conformations at the cell surface, we focus here on conventional biochemical and genetic methods, as well as on new imaging techniques such as those based on resonance energy transfer; we also evaluate in vitro and in vivo methods to determine certain chemokine receptor functions.

Key words:

Chemokine Chemokine receptor GPCR Dimerization BRET FRET Chemotaxis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the members of the DIO chemokine group, who contributed to some of the work described in this review. We also thank C. Bastos and C. Mark for secretarial support and helpful editorial assistance, respectively. This work was partially funded by grants from the EU (LSHB-CT-2005-518167 and LSHG–CT-2003-503259), the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (SAF2005-03388), and the Madrid Regional Government. The Department of Immunology and Oncology was founded and is supported by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and by Pfizer.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Miguel Rodríguez-Frade
    • 1
  • Laura Martinez Muñoz
    • 1
  • Borja L. Holgado
    • 1
  • Mario Mellado
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Immunology and OncologyCentro Nacional de BiotecnologíaMadridSpain

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