Epidemiology of Brain Tumors

  • Hiroko Ohgaki
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 472)

Abstract

Gliomas account for more than 70% of all brain tumors, and of these, glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant histologic type (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV). There is a tendency toward a higher incidence of gliomas in highly developed, industrialized countries. Some reports indicate that Caucasians have a higher incidence than African or Asian populations. With the exception of pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I), the prognosis of glioma patients is still poor. Fewer than 3% of glioblastoma patients are still alive at 5 years after diagnosis, older age being the most significant and consistent prognostic factor of poorer outcome. Gliomas are components of several inherited tumor syndromes, but the prevalence of these syndromes is very low. Many environmental and lifestyle factors including several occupations, environmental carcinogens, and diet have been reported to be associated with an elevated glioma risk, but the only factor unequivocally associated with an increased risk is therapeutic X-irradiation. In particular, children treated with X-irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia show a significantly elevated risk of developing gliomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, often within 10 years after therapy. Significant correlation between G:C→A:T transitions in the TP53 gene and promoter methylation of the O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene in glio-mas have been reported in several studies, suggesting the possible involvement of O6-methylguanine DNA adducts, which may be produced by exogenous or endogenous alkylating agents in the development of gliomas.

Key words

Glioma incidence survival occupation N-nitroso compounds cellular phone hereditary syndrome TP53 mutations 

References

  1. 1.
    Parkin, D.M., Whelan, S.L., Feraly, J., Teppo, L., Thomas, D.B. (2002) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Vol VIII, IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feraly, J., Bray, F., Pisani, P., Parkin, D.M. (2000) Globocan 2000: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ohgaki, H., Dessen, P., Jourde, B., Horstmann, S., Nishikawa, T., Di Patre, P. L., Burkhard, C., Schuler, D., Probst-Hensch, N. M., Maiorka, P. C., Baeza, N., Pisani, P., Yonekawa, Y., Yasargil, M. G., Lutolf, U. M., and Kleihues, P. (2004) Genetic pathways to glioblastoma: a population-based study. Cancer Res. 64, 6892–6899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okamoto, Y., Di Patre, P. L., Burkhard, C., Horstmann, S., Jourde, B., Fahey, M., Schuler, D., Probst-Hensch, N. M., Yasargil, M. G., Yonekawa, Y., Lutolf, U., Kleihues, P., and Ohgaki, H. (2004) Population-based study on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations of low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 108, 49–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burkhard, C., Di Patre, P. L., Schüler, D., Yasargil, M. G., Lütolf, U., Kleihues, P., and Ohgaki, H. (2003) A populationbased study on the incidence and survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg. 98, 1170–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stiller, C. A. and Nectoux, J. (1994) International incidence of childhood brain and spinal tumours. Int. J. Epidemiol. 23, 458–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McLendon, R. E., Robinson, J. S., Jr., Chambers, D. B., Grufferman, S., and Burger, P. C. (1985) The glioblastoma multiforme in Georgia, 1977–1981. Cancer. 56, 894–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuratsu, J., Takeshima, H., and Ushio, Y. (2001) Trends in the incidence of primary intracranial tumors in Kumamoto, Japan. Int J Clin Oncol. 6, 183–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fan, K. J. and Pezeshkpour, G. H. (1992) Ethnic distribution of primary central nervous system tumors in Washington, DC, 1971 to 1985. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 84, 858–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS; http://www.cbtrus.org).
  11. 11.
    Muir, C. S., Storm, H. H., and Polednak, A. (1994) Brain and other nervous system tumors. Cancer Surv. 19/20, 369–392.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Preston-Martin, S., Lewis, S., Winkelmann, R., Borman, B., Auld, J., and Pearce, N. (1993) Descriptive epidemiology of primary cancer of the brain, cranial nerves, and cranial meninges in New Zealand, 1948–88. Cancer Causes Control. 4, 529–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyle, P., Maisonneuve, P., Saracci, R., and Muir, C. S. (1990) Is the increased incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in the elderly real? J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82, 1594–1596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Greig, N. H., Ries, L. G., Yancik, R., and Rapoport, S. I. (1990) Increasing annual incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in the elderly. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82, 1621–1624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shugg, D., Allen, B. J., Blizzard, L., Dwyer, T., and Roder, D. (1994) Brain cancer incidence, mortality and case survival: observations from two Australian cancer registries. Int. J. Cancer. 59, 765–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swensen, A. R. and Bushhouse, S. A. (1998) Childhood cancer incidence and trends in Minnesota, 1988–1994. Minn. Med. 81, 27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Legler, J. M., Ries, L. A., Smith, M. A., Warren, J. L., Heineman, E. F., Kaplan, R. S., and Linet, M. S. (1999) Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Modan, B., Wagener, D. K., Feldman, J. J., Rosenberg, H. M., and Feinleib, M. (1992) Increased mortality from brain tumors: a combine outcome of diagnostic technology and change of attitude toward the elderly? Am. J. Epidemiol. 135, 1349–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Christensen, H. C., Kosteljanetz, M., and Johansen, C. (2003) Incidences of gliomas and meningiomas in Denmark, 1943 to 1997. Neurosurgery. 52, 1327–1333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Werner, M. H., Phuphanich, S., and Lyman, G. H. (1995) Increasing incidence of primary brain tumors in the elderly in Florida. Cancer Control. 2, 309–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jukich, P. J., McCarthy, B. J., Surawicz, T. S., Freels, S., and Davis, F. G. (2001) Trends in incidence of primary brain tumors in the United States, 1985–1994. Neuro-oncol. 3, 141–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lonn, S., Klaeboe, L., Hall, P., Mathiesen, T., Auvinen, A., Christensen, H. C., Johansen, C., Salminen, T., Tynes, T., and Feychting, M. (2004) Incidence trends of adult primary intracerebral tumors in four Nordic countries. Int. J. Cancer. 108, 450–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dreifaldt, A. C., Carlberg, M., and Hardell, L. (2004) Increasing incidence rates of childhood malignant diseases in Sweden during the period 1960–1998. Eur. J. Cancer. 40, 1351–1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Houben, M. P., Aben, K. K., Teepen, J. L., Schouten-Van Meeteren, A. Y., Tijssen, C. C., Van Duijn, C. M., and Coebergh, J. W. (2006) Stable incidence of childhood and adult glioma in The Netherlands, 1989–2003. Acta Oncol. 45, 272–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoffman, S., Propp, J. M., and McCarthy, B. J. (2006) Temporal trends in incidence of primary brain tumors in the United States, 1985–1999. Neuro-oncol. 8, 27–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Sankila, R., Parkin, D.M. (1999) EUCAN 1999: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence in the European Union. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Claus, E. B. and Black, P. M. (2006) Survival rates and patterns of care for patients diagnosed with supratentorial low-grade gliomas: data from the SEER program, 1973–2001. Cancer. 106, 1358–1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tseng, J. H., Merchant, E., and Tseng, M. Y. (2006) Effects of socioeconomic and geographic variations on survival for adult glioma in England and Wales. Surg. Neurol. 66, 258–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tseng, M. Y. and Tseng, J. H. (2005) Survival analysis for adult glioma in England and Wales. J. Formos Med. Assoc. 104, 341–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oertel, J., von Buttlar, E., Schroeder, H. W., and Gaab, M. R. (2005) Prognosis of gliomas in the 1970s and today. Neurosurg. Focus. 18, e12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Magnani, C., Aareleid, T., Viscomi, S., Pastore, G., and Berrino, F. (2001) Variation in survival of children with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies diagnosed in Europe between 1978 and 1992: the EUROCARE study. Eur. J. Cancer. 37, 711–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stroup, N. E., Blair, A., and Erikson, G. E. (1986) Brain cancer and other causes of death in anatomists. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77, 1217–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harrington, J. M. and Oakes, D. (1984) Mortality study of British pathologists 1974–1980. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 41, 188–191.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hall, A., Harrington, J. M., and Aw, T. C. (1991) Mortality study of British pathologists. Am. J. Ind. Med. 20, 83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Walrath, J. and Fraumeni, J. J. (1984) Cancer and other causes of death among embalmers. Cancer Res. 44, 4638–4641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Krishnan, G., Felini, M., Carozza, S. E., Miike, R., Chew, T., and Wrensch, M. (2003) Occupation and adult gliomas in the San Francisco Bay Area. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 45, 639–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Roos, A. J., Stewart, P. A., Linet, M. S., Heineman, E. F., Dosemeci, M., Wilcosky, T., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., Fine, H. A., Black, P. M., and Inskip, P. D. (2003) Occupation and the risk of adult glioma in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 14, 139–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carozza, S. E., Wrensch, M., Miike, R., Newman, B., Olshan, A. F., Savitz, D. A., Yost, M., and Lee, M. (2000) Occupation and adult gliomas. Am. J. Epidemiol. 152, 838–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zheng, T., Cantor, K. P., Zhang, Y., Keim, S., and Lynch, C. F. (2001) Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a populationbased case-control study in Iowa. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 43, 317–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khuder, S. A., Mutgi, A. B., and Schaub, E. A. (1998) Meta-analyses of brain cancer and farming. Am. J. Ind. Med. 34, 252–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Preston-Martin, S., Mack, W., and Henderson, B. E. (1989) Risk factors for gliomas and meningiomas in males in Los Angeles County. Cancer Res. 49, 6137–6143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Navas-Acien, A., Pollan, M., Gustavsson, P., and Plato, N. (2002) Occupation, exposure to chemicals and risk of gliomas and meningiomas in Sweden. Am. J. Ind. Med. 42, 214–227.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cocco, P., Dosemeci, M., and Heineman, E. F. (1998) Brain cancer and occupational exposure to lead. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 40, 937–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anttila, A., Heikkila, P., Nykyri, E., Kauppinen, T., Pukkala, E., Hernberg, S., and Hemminki, K. (1996) Risk of nervous system cancer among workers exposed to lead. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 38, 131–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wong, O., and Harris, F. (2000) Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947–1995. Am. J. Ind. Med. 38, 255–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rajaraman, P., Stewart, P. A., Samet, J. M., Schwartz, B. S., Linet, M. S., Zahm, S. H., Rothman, N., Yeager, M., Fine, H. A., Black, P. M., Loeffler, J., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., and Inskip, P. D. (2006) Lead, genetic susceptibility, and risk of adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 15, 2514–2520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moss, A. R. (1985) Occupational exposure and brain tumors. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 16, 703–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Siemiatycki, J., Richardson, L., Straif, K., Latreille, B., Lakhani, R., Campbell, S., Rousseau, M. C., and Boffetta, P. (2004) Listing occupational carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect. 112, 1447–1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McKean-Cowdin, R., Preston-Martin, S., Pogoda, J. M., Holly, E. A., Mueller, B. A., and Davis, R. L. (1998) Parental occupation and childhood brain tumors: astroglial and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 40, 332–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cordier, S., Mandereau, L., Preston-Martin, S., Little, J., Lubin, F., Mueller, B., Holly, E., Filippini, G., Peris-Bonet, R., McCredie, M., Choi, N. W., and Arsla, A. (2001) Parental occupations and childhood brain tumors: results of an international case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 12, 865–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cordier, S., Monfort, C., Filippini, G., Preston-Martin, S., Lubin, F., Mueller, B. A., Holly, E. A., Peris-Bonet, R., McCredie, M., Choi, W., Little, J., and Arslan, A. (2004) Parental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the risk of childhood brain tumors: The SEARCH International Childhood Brain Tumor Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 159, 1109–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brownson, R. C., Reif, J. S., Chang, J. C., and Davis, J. R. (1990) An analysis of occupational risks for brain cancer. Am. J. Public Health. 80, 169–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Inskip, P. D., Tarone, R. E., Hatch, E. E., Wilcosky, T. C., Fine, H. A., Black, P. M., Loeffler, J. S., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., and Linet, M. S. (2003) Sociodemographic indicators and risk of brain tumours. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32, 225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lijinsky, W. (1992) Chemistry and Biology of N-Nitroso Compounds. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kleihues, P., Wiestler, O. D., Ohgaki, H., and Aguzzi, A. (1998) Animal models of tumors of the nervous system, in The Gliomas (Berger, M. S., and Wilson, C. eds.) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 124–133.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee, M., Wrensch, M., and Miike, R. (1997) Dietary and tobacco risk factors for adult onset glioma in the San Francisco Bay Area (California, USA). Cancer Causes Control. 8, 13–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Boeing, H., Schlehofer, B., Blettner, M., and Wahrendorf, J. (1993) Dietary carcinogens and the risk for glioma and meningioma in Germany. Int. J. Cancer. 53, 561–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blowers, L., Preston-Martin, S., and Mack, W. J. (1997) Dietary and other lifestyle factors of women with brain gliomas in Los Angeles County (California, USA). Cancer Causes Control. 8, 5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huncharek, M., Kupelnick, B., and Wheeler, L. (2003) Dietary cured meat and the risk of adult glioma: a meta-analysis of nine observational studies. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 22, 129–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Giles, G. G., McNeil, J. J., Donnan, G., Webley, C., Staples, M. P., Ireland, P. D., Hurley, S. F., and Salzberg, M. (1994) Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia. Int. J. Cancer. 59, 357–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chen, H., Ward, M. H., Tucker, K. L., Graubard, B. I., McComb, R. D., Potischman, N. A., Weisenburger, D. D., and Heineman, E. F. (2002) Diet and risk of adult glioma in eastern Nebraska, United States. Cancer Causes Control. 13, 647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bunin, G. R., Kuijten, R. R., Boesel, C. P., Buckley, J. D., and Meadows, A. T. (1994) Maternal diet and risk of astrocytic glioma in children: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada). Cancer Causes Control. 5, 177–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Preston-Martin, S., Pogoda, J. M., Mueller, B. A., Holly, E. A., Lijinsky, W., and Davis, R. L. (1996) Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 5, 599–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kuijten, R. R., Bunin, G. R., Nass, C. C., and Meadows, A. T. (1990) Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study. Cancer Res. 50, 2608–2612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pogoda, J. M. and Preston-Martin, S. (2001) Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake. Public Health Nutr. 4, 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Preston-Martin, S., Pogoda, J. M., Mueller, B. A., Lubin, F., Holly, E. A., Filippini, G., Cordier, S., Peris-Bonet, R., Choi, W., Little, J., and Arslan, A. (1998) Prenatal vitamin supplementation and risk of childhood brain tumors. Int. J. Cancer Suppl. 11, 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huncharek, M. and Kupelnick, B. (2004) A meta-analysis of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Neuroepidemiology. 23, 78–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kaplan, S., Novikov, I., and Modan, B. (1997) Nutritional factors in the etiology of brain tumors: potential role of nitrosamines, fat, and cholesterol. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146, 832–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tedeschi-Blok, N., Schwartzbaum, J., Lee, M., Miike, R., and Wrensch, M. (2001) Dietary calcium consumption and astrocytic glioma: the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study, 1991–1995. Nutr. Cancer. 39, 196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tedeschi-Blok, N., Lee, M., Sison, J. D., Miike, R., and Wrensch, M. (2006) Inverse association of antioxidant and phytoestrogen nutrient intake with adult glioma in the San Francisco Bay Area: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. 6, 148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zheng, T., Cantor, K. P., Zhang, Y., Chiu, B. C., and Lynch, C. F. (2001) Risk of brain glioma not associated with cigarette smoking or use of other tobacco products in Iowa. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 10, 413–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Norman, M. A., Holly, E. A., Ahn, D. K., Preston-Martin, S., Mueller, B. A., and Bracci, P. M. (1996) Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood brain tumors: results from the United States West Coast childhood brain tumor study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 5, 127–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (2004) Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Relling, M. V., Rubnitz, J. E., Rivera, G. K., Boyett, J. M., Hancock, M. L., Felix, C. A., Kun, L. E., Walter, A. W., Evans, W. E., and Pui, C. H. (1999) High incidence of secondary brain tumours after radiotherapy and antimetabolites. Lancet. 354, 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rosso, P., Terracini, B., Fears, T. R., Jankovic, M., Fossati, B. F., Arrighini, A., Carli, M., Cordero, d. M., Garre, M. L., and Guazzelli, C. (1994) Second malignant tumors after elective end of therapy for a first cancer in childhood: a multicenter study in Italy. Int. J. Cancer. 59, 451–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Neglia, J. P., Meadows, A. T., Robison, L. L., Kim, T. H., Newton, W. A., Ruymann, F. B., Sather, H. N., and Hammond, G. D. (1991) Second neoplasms after acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 1330–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nygaard, R., Garwicz, S., Haldorsen, T., Hertz, H., Jonmundsson, G. K., Lanning, M., and Moe, P. J. (1991) Second malignant neoplasms in patients treated for childhood leukemia. A population-based cohort study from the Nordic countries. The Nordic Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (NOPHO). Acta Paediatr Scand. 80, 1220–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Little, M. P., De Vathaire, F., Shamsaldin, A., Oberlin, O., Campbell, S., Grimaud, E., Chavaudra, J., Haylock, R. G., and Muirhead, C. R. (1998) Risks of brain tumour following treatment for cancer in childhood: modification by genetic factors, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Int. J. Cancer. 78, 269–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Walter, A. W., Hancock, M. L., Pui, C. H., Hudson, M. M., Ochs, J. S., Rivera, G. K., Pratt, C. B., Boyett, J. M., and Kun, L. E. (1998) Secondary brain tumors in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital. J. Clin. Oncol. 16, 3761–3767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brustle, O., Ohgaki, H., Schmitt, H. P., Walter, G. F., Ostertag, H., and Kleihues, P. (1992) Primitive neuroectodermal tumors after prophylactic central nervous system irradiation in children. Association with an activated K-ras gene. Cancer. 69, 2385–2392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Neglia, J. P., Robison, L. L., Stovall, M., Liu, Y., Packer, R. J., Hammond, S., Yasui, Y., Kasper, C. E., Mertens, A. C., Donaldson, S. S., Meadows, A. T., and Inskip, P. D. (2006) New primary neoplasms of the central nervous system in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98, 1528–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Soffer, D., Gomori, J. M., Pomeranz, S., and Siegal, T. (1990) Gliomas following low-dose irradiation to the head report of three cases. J. Neurooncol. 8, 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ron, E., Modan, B., Boice, J. D., Jr., Alfandary, E., Stovall, M., Chetrit, A., and Katz, L. (1988) Tumors of the brain and nervous system after radiotherapy in childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 319, 1033–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Savitz, D. A. and Loomis, D. P. (1995) Magnetic field exposure in relation to leukemia and brain cancer mortality among electric utility workers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 141, 123–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Villeneuve, P. J., Agnew, D. A., Johnson, K. C., and Mao, Y. (2002) Brain cancer and occupational exposure to magnetic fields among men: results from a Canadian population-based case-control study. Int. J. Epidemiol. 31, 210–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Armstrong, B., Thierault, G., Guenel, P., Deadman, J., Goldberg, M., and Heroux, P. (1994) Association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada, and France. Am. J. Epidemiol. 140, 805–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Thierault, G., Goldberg, M., Miller, A. B., Armstrong, B., Guenel, P., Deadman, J., Imbernon, E., To, T., Chevalier, A., Cyr, D., et al. (1994) Cancer risks associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields among electric utility workers in Ontario and Quebec, Canada and France: 1970–1989. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 550–572.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wrensch, M., Yost, M., Miike, R., Lee, G., and Touchstone, J. (1999) Adult glioma in relation to residential power frequency electromagnetic field exposures in the San Francisco Bay area. Epidemiology. 10, 523–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kheifets, L. I., Sussman, S. S., and Preston-Martin, S. (1999) Childhood brain tumors and residential electromagnetic fields (EMF). Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 159, 111–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gurney, J. G., Mueller, B. A., Davis, S., Schwartz, S. M., Stevens, R. G., and Kopecky, K. J. (1996) Childhood brain tumor occurrence in relation to residential power line configurations, electric heating sources, and electric appliance use. Am. J. Epidemiol. 143, 120–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Preston-Martin, S., Navidi, W., Thomas, D., Lee, P. J., Bowman, J., and Pogoda, J. (1996) Los Angeles study of residential magnetic fields and childhood brain tumors. Am. J. Epidemiol. 143, 105–119.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johansen, C., Boice, J., Jr., McLaughlin, J., and Olsen, J. (2001) Cellular telephones and cancer--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Muscat, J. E., Malkin, M. G., Thompson, S., Shore, R. E., Stellman, S. D., McRee, D., Neugut, A. I., and Wynder, E. L. (2000) Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. JAMA. 284, 3001–3007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Inskip, P. D., Tarone, R. E., Hatch, E. E., Wilcosky, T. C., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., Fine, H. A., Black, P. M., Loeffler, J. S., and Linet, M. S. (2001) Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. N. Engl. J. Med. 344, 79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schuz, J., Bohler, E., Berg, G., Schlehofer, B., Hettinger, I., Schlaefer, K., Wahrendorf, J., Kunna-Grass, K., and Blettner, M. (2006) Cellular phones, cordless phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany). Am. J. Epidemiol. 163, 512–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hepworth, S. J., Schoemaker, M. J., Muir, K. R., Swerdlow, A. J., van Tongeren, M. J., and McKinney, P. A. (2006) Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study. BMJ. 332, 883–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lahkola, A., Auvinen, A., Raitanen, J., Schoemaker, M. J., Christensen, H. C., Feychting, M., Johansen, C., Klaeboe, L., Lonn, S., Swerdlow, A. J., Tynes, T., and Salminen, T. (2007) Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries. Int. J. Cancer. 120, 1769–1775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lonn, S., Ahlbom, A., Hall, P., and Feychting, M. (2005) Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk. Am. J. Epidemiol. 161, 526–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hardell, L., Mild, K. H., and Carlberg, M. (2002) Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 78, 931–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lantos, P. L., Louis, D. N., Rosenblum, M. K., and Kleihues, P. (2002) Tumours of the Nervous System, in Greenfield's Neuropathology (Graham, D. I., and Lantos, P. L. eds.) Arnold, London, pp. 767–1052.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hochberg, F., Toniolo, P., and Cole, P. (1984) Head trauma and seizures as risk factors of glioblastoma. Neurology. 34, 1511–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schlehofer, B., Blettner, M., Becker, N., Martinsohn, C., and Wahrendorf, J. (1992) Medical risk factors and the development of brain tumors. Cancer. 69, 2541–2547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gurney, J. G., Preston-Mar tin, S., McDaniel, A. M., Mueller, B. A., and Holly, E. A. (1996) Head injury as a risk factor for brain tumors in children: results from a multicenter case-control study. Epidemiology. 7, 485–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schlehofer, B., Blettner, M., Pr eston-Mar t in, S., Niehoff, D., Wahrendorf, J., Arslan, A., Ahlbom, A., Choi, W. N., Giles, G. G., Howe, G. R., Little, J., Menegoz, F., and Ryan, P. (1999) Role of medical history in brain tumour development. Results from the international adult brain tumour study. Int. J. Cancer. 82, 155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brenner, A. V., Linet, M. S., Fine, H. A., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., Black, P. M., and Inskip, P. D. (2002) History of allergies and autoimmune diseases and risk of brain tumors in adults. Int. J. Cancer. 99, 252–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wiemels, J. L., Wiencke, J. K., Sison, J. D., Miike, R., McMillan, A., and Wrensch, M. (2002) History of allergies among adults with glioma and controls. Int. J. Cancer. 98, 609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schwartzbaum, J., Jonsson, F., Ahlbom, A., Preston-Martin, S., Lonn, S., Soderberg, K. C., and Feychting, M. (2003) Cohort studies of association between self-reported allergic conditions, immune-related diagnoses and glioma and meningioma risk. Int. J. Cancer. 106, 423–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schoemaker, M. J., Swerdlow, A. J., Hepworth, S. J., McKinney, P. A., van Tongeren, M., and Muir, K. R. (2006) History of allergies and risk of glioma in adults. Int. J. Cancer. 119, 2165–2172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wiemels, J. L., Wiencke, J. K., Patoka, J., Moghadassi, M., Chew, T., McMillan, A., Miike, R., Barger, G., and Wrensch, M. (2004) Reduced immunoglobulin E and allergy among adults with glioma compared with controls. Cancer Res. 64, 8468–8473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wiemels, J. L., Wiencke, J. K., Kelsey, K. T., Moghadassi, M., Rice, T., Urayama, K. Y., Miike, R., and Wrensch, M. (2007) Allergyrelated polymorphisms influence glioma status and serum IgE levels. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 16, 1229–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hoption Cann, S. A., van Netten, J. P., and van Netten, C. (2006) Acute infections as a means of cancer prevention: opposing effects to chronic infections? Cancer Detect Prev. 30, 83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wrensch, M., Weinberg, A., Wiencke, J., Miike, R., Sison, J., Wiemels, J., Barger, G., DeLorenze, G., Aldape, K., and Kelsey, K. (2005) History of chickenpox and shingles and prevalence of antibodies to varicellazoster virus and three other herpesviruses among adults with glioma and controls. Am. J. Epidemiol. 161, 929–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Carbone, M., Rizzo, P., and Pass, H. I. (1997) Simian virus 40, poliovaccines and human tumors: a review of recent developments. Oncogene. 15, 1877–1888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Huang, H., Reis, R., Yonekawa, Y., Lopes, J. M., Kleihues, P., and Ohgaki, H. (1999) Identification in human brain tumors of DNA sequences specific for SV40 large T antigen. Brain Pathol. 9, 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Martini, F., Iaccheri, L., Lazzarin, L., Carinci, P., Corallini, A., Gerosa, M., Iuzzolino, P., Barbanti-Brodano, G., and Tognon, M. (1996) SV40 early region and large T antigen in human brain tumors, peripheral blood cells, and sperm fluids from healthy individuals. Cancer Res. 56, 4820–4825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vilchez, R. A., and Butel, J. S. (2004) Emergent human pathogen simian virus 40 and its role in cancer. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17, 495–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ohgaki, H., Huang, H., Haltia, M., Vainio, H., and Kleihues, P. (2000) More about: Cell and molecular biology of Simian Virus 40: Implications for human infections and disease. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92, 495–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vilchez, R. A., Kozinetz, C. A., Arrington, A. S., Madden, C. R., and Butel, J. S. (2003) Simian virus 40 in human cancers. Am. J. Med. 114, 675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Louis, D.N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler O.D., Cavenee, W.K. (eds.) (2007) WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ohgaki, H., Olivier, M., and Hainaut, P. (2007) Li-Fraumeni syndrome and TP53 germline mutations, in WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. In: Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D., and Cavenee, W. K. (eds.) IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 222–225.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    von Deimling, A. and Perr y, A. (2007) Neurofibromatosis type 1, in WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. In: Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D., and Cavenee, W. K. (eds.) IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 206–209.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lewis, R. A., Gerson, L. P., Axelson, K. A., Riccardi, V. M., and Whitford, R. P. (1984) von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. II. Incidence of optic gliomata. Ophthalmology. 91, 929–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stemmer-Rachamimov, A. O., Wiestler, O. D., and Louis, D. N. (2007) Neurofibromatosis type 2, in WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. In: Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D., and Cavenee, W. K. (eds.) IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 210–214.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lamszus, K., Lachenmayer, L., Heinemann, U., Kluwe, L., Finckh, U., Hoppner, W., Stavrou, D., Fillbrandt, R., and Westphal, M. (2001) Molecular genetic alterations on chromosomes 11 and 22 in ependymomas. Int. J. Cancer. 91, 803–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rodriguez, H. A., and Berthrong, M. (1966) Multiple primary intracranial tumors in von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. Arch. Neurol. 14, 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cavenee, W. K., Burger, P. C., Leung, S. Y., and Van Meir, E. G. (2007) Turcot syndrome, in WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. In: Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D., and Cavenee, W. K. (eds.) IARC, Lyon, France, pp. 229–231.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Malmer, B., Gronberg, H., Bergenheim, A. T., Lenner, P., and Henriksson, R. (1999) Familial aggregation of astrocytoma in northern Sweden: an epidemiological cohort study. Int. J. Cancer. 81, 366–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Malmer, B., Iselius, L., Holmberg, E., Collins, A., Henriksson, R., and Gronberg, H. (2001) Genetic epidemiology of glioma. Br. J. Cancer. 84, 429–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hemminki, K., Kyyronen, P., and Vaittinen, P. (1999) Parental age as a risk factor of childhood leukemia and brain cancer in offspring. Epidemiology. 10, 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    de Andrade, M., Barnholtz, J. S., Amos, C. I., Adatto, P., Spencer, C., and Bondy, M. L. (2001) Segregation analysis of cancer in families of glioma patients. Genet. Epidemiol. 20, 258–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    O'Neill, B. P., Blondal, H., Yang, P., Olafsdottir, G. H., Sigvaldason, H., Jenkins, R. B., Kimmel, D. W., Scheithauer, B. W., Rocca, W. A., Bjornsson, J., and Tulinius, H. (2002) Risk of cancer among relatives of patients with glioma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 11, 921–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Elexpuru-Camiruaga, J., Buxton, N., Kandula, V., Dias, P. S., Campbell, D., McIntosh, J., Broome, J., Jones, P., Inskip, A., Alldersea, J. (1995) Susceptibility to astrocytoma and meningioma: influence of allelism at glutathione S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP2D6) loci. Cancer Res. 55, 4237–4239.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kelsey, K. T., Wrensch, M., Zuo, Z. F., Miike, R., and Wiencke, J. K. (1997) A population-based case-control study of the CYP2D6 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and malignant brain tumors. Pharmacogenetics. 7, 463–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ezer, R., Alonso, M., Pereira, E., Kim, M., Allen, J. C., Miller, D. C., and Newcomb, E. W. (2002) Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in brain tumors and association with susceptibility to pediatric astrocytomas. J. Neurooncol. 59, 123–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    De Roos, A. J., Rothman, N., Inskip, P. D., Linet, M. S., Shapiro, W. R., Selker, R. G., Fine, H. A., Black, P. M., Pittman, G. S., and Bell, D. A. (2003) Genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1, -P1, -T1, and CYP2E1 and the risk of adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 12, 14–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Trizna, Z., de Andrade, M., Kyritsis, A. P., Briggs, K., Levin, V. A., Bruner, J. M., Wei, Q., and Bondy, M. L. (1998) Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase mu and theta, N-acetyltransferase, and CYP1A1 and risk of gliomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 7, 553–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Caggana, M., Kilgallen, J., Conroy, J. M., Wiencke, J. K., Kelsey, K. T., Miike, R., Chen, P., and Wrensch, M. R. (2001) Associations between ERCC2 polymorphisms and gliomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 10, 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nakamura, M., Watanabe, T., Yonekawa, Y., Kleihues, P., and Ohgaki, H. (2001) Promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT in astrocytomas is frequently associated with G:C—A:T mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Carcinogenesis. 22, 1715–1719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ohshima, H. and Bartsch, H. (1994) Chronic infections and inflammatory processes as cancer risk factors: possible role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 305, 253–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tornaletti, S. and Pfeifer, G. P. (1995) Complete and tissue-independent methylation of CpG sites in the p53 gene: implications for mutations in human cancers. Oncogene. 10, 1493–1499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bello, M. J., Alonso, M. E., Aminoso, C., Anselmo, N. P., Arjona, D., Gonzalez-Gomez, P., Lopez-Marin, I., de Campos, J. M., Gutierrez, M., Isla, A., Kusak, M. E., Lassaletta, L., Sarasa, J. L., Vaquero, J., Casartelli, C., and Rey, J. A. (2004) Hypermethylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT: association with TP53 G:C to A:T transitions in a series of 469 nervous system tumors. Mutat. Res. 554, 23–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Watanabe, T., Katayama, Y., Komine, C., Yoshino, A., Ogino, A., Ohta, T., and Fukushima, T. (2005) O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation and TP53 mutation in malignant astrocytomas and their relationships with clinical course. Int. J. Cancer. 113, 581–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Yin, D., Xie, D., Hofmann, W. K., Zhang, W., Asotra, K., Wong, R., Black, K. L., and Koeffler, H. P. (2003) DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase: promoter hypermethylation associated with decreased expression and G:C to A:T mutations of p53 in brain tumors. Mol. Carcinog. 36, 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Pegg, A. E. (2000) Repair of O6 -alkylguanine by alkyltransferases. Mutat. Res. 462, 83–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Silber, J. R., Blank, A., Bobola, M. S., Mueller, B. A., Kolstoe, D. D., Ojemann, G. A., and Berger, M. S. (1996) Lack of the DNA repair protein O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in histologically normal brain adjacent to primary human brain tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93, 6941–6946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    De Bont, R. and van Larebeke, N. (2004) Endogenous DNA damage in humans: a review of quantitative data. Mutagenesis. 19, 169–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kang, H., Konishi, C., Kuroki, T., and Huh, N. (1995) Detection of O6-meth-ylguanine, O4-methylthymine and O4-ethylthymine in human liver and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA. Carcinogenesis. 16, 1277–1280.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroko Ohgaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Pathology GroupInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations