Capillary Electrophoresis of DNA

Biomedical Applications
  • Beatriz Sanchez-Vega
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

1. Principles of Capillary Electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations are carried out inside a capillary tube, which usually has a diameter of 50 μm to facilitate temperature control. The length of the capillary differs in different applications, but it is typically in the region of 20–50 cm. The capillaries most widely used are fused silica covered with an external protective coating. A small portion of this coating is removed to form a window for detection purposes. The ends of the capillary are dipped into reservoirs filled with the electrolyte. Electrodes made of an inert material such as platinum are also inserted into the electrolyte reservoirs to complete the electrical circuit. The capillary is filled with running buffer, one end is dipped into the sample, and an electric field (electrokinetic injection) or pressure is applied to introduce the sample inside the capillary. Migration through the capillary is driven by application of a high-voltage current (10–30...


Capillary Electrophoresis Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Peptide Nucleic Acid Hereditary Hemochromatosis Heteroduplex Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Heller C (2001) Principles of DNA separation with capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 22:629–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu MS, Chen FT (2000) Rapid analysis of amplified double-stranded DNA by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Mol Biotechnol 15:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gong X, Yeung ES (2000) Genetic typing and HIV-1 diagnosis by using 96 capillary array electrophoresis and ultraviolet absorption detection. J Chromatogr, B: Biomed Sci Appl 741:15–21Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang N, Yeung ES (1998) On-line coupling of polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis for automatic DNA typing and HIV-1 diagnosis. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 714:3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lu W, Han DS, Yuan J, Andrieu JM (1994) Multi-target PCR analysis by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence. Nature 368:269–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rossomando EF, White L, Ulfelder KJ (1994) Capillary electrophoresis: separation and quantitation of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction products from polio virus. J Chromatogr B: Biomed Sci Appl 656:159–168Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li N, Tan WG, Tsang RY, Tyrrell DL, Dovichi NJ (2002) Quantitative olymerase chain reaction using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection: analysis of duck hepatitis B Anal Bioanal Chem 374:269–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tan WG, Tyrrell DL, Dovichi NJ (1999) Detection of duck hepatitis B virus DNA fragments using on-column intercalating dye labeling with capillary electrophore-sis-laser-induced fluorescence. J Chromatogr A 853:309–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gelfi C, Orsi A, Leoncini F, et al (1995) Amplification of 18 dystrophin gene exons in DMD/BMD patients: simultaneous resolution by capillary electrophoresis in sieving liquid polymers. Biotechniques 19:254–258, 260–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shen Y, Xu Q, Han F, et al (1999) Application of capillary nongel sieving electro-phoresis for gene analysis. Electrophoresis 20:1822–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guttman A, Barta C, Szoke M, Sasvari-Szekely M, Kalasz H (1998) Real-time detection of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction products by automated ultra-thin-layer agarose gel electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 828:481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gelfi C, Righetti PG, Brancolini V, Cremonesi L, Ferrari M (1994) Capillary elec-trophoresis in polymer networks for analysis of PCR products: detection of delta F508 mutation in cystic fibrosis. Clin Chem 40:1603–1605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kiyoi H, Naoe T (2002) FLT3 in human hematologic malignancies. Leukemia Lymphoma 43:1541–1547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Greiner TC, Rubocki RJ (2002) Effectiveness of capillary electrophoresis using fluorescent-labeled primers in detecting T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements. J Mol Diagn 4:137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Novella E, Giaretta I, Elice F, et al (2002) Fluorescent polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis for IgH rearrangement and minimal residual disease evaluation in multiple myeloma. Haematologica 87:1157–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Knudson AG (2002) Cancer genetics. Am J Med Genet 111:96–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martinelli G, Testoni N, Montefusco V, et al (1998) Detection of bcr-abl transcript in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis. Haematologica 83:593–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sanchez-Vega B, Vega F, Medeiros LJ, Lee MS, Luthra R (2002) Quantification of bcl-2/JH fusion sequences and a control gene by multiplex real-time PCR coupled with automated amplicon sizing by capillary electrophoresis. J Mol Diagn 4:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matyas G, Giunta C, Steinmann B, Hossle JP, Hellwig R (2002) Quantification of single nucleotide polymorphisms: a novel method that combines primer extension assay and capillary electrophoresis. Hum Mutat 19:58–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piggee CA, Muth J, Carrilho E, Karger BL (1997) Capillary electrophoresis for the detection of known point mutations by single-nucleotide primer extension and laser- induced fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr, A 781:367–375Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vreeland WN, Meagher RJ, Barron AE (2002) Multiplexed, high-throughput genotyping by single-base extension and end-labeled free-solution electrophoresis. Anal Chem 74:4328–4333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bugalho MJ, Domingues R, Sobrinho L (2002) The minisequencing method: a simple strategy for genetic screening of MEN 2 families. BMC Genet 3:8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zsolnai A, Anton I, Kuhn C, Fesus L (2003) Detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms coding for three ovine prion protein variants by primer extension assay and capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 24:634–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arakawa H, Uetanaka K, Maeda M, Tsuji A, Matsubara Y, Narisawa K (1994) Analysis of polymerase chain reaction-product by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection and its application to the diagnosis of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. J Chromatogr A 680:517–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barta C, Sasvari-Szekely M, Guttman A (1998) Simultaneous analysis of various mutations on the 21- hydroxylase gene by multi-allele specific amplification and capillary gel electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 817:281–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lehmann R, Koch M, Pfohl M, Voelter W, Haring HU, Liebich HM (1996) Screening and identification of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in clinical samples by capillary gel electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 744:187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    van de Locht LT, Kuypers AW, Verbruggen BW, Linssen PC, Novakova IR, Mensink EJ (1995) Semi-automated detection of the factor V mutation by allele specific amplification and capillary electrophoresis. Thromb Haemost 74:1276–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gomez-Llorente MA, Suarez A, Gomez-Llorente C, et al (2001) Analysis of 31 CFTR mutations in 55 families from the South of Spain. Early Hum Dev 65(Suppl.):S161–S164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Day NS, Tadin M, Christiano AM, Lanzano P, Piomelli S, Brown S (2002) Rapid prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell diseases using oligonucleotide ligation assay coupled with laser-induced capillary fluorescence detection. Prenat Diagn 22: 686–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Somsen GW, Welten HT, Mulder FP, Swart CW, Kema IP, de Jong, GJ (2002) Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection for fast and reliable apolipoprotein E genotyping. J Chromatogr B: Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 775:17–26Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mitchell CE, Belinsky SA, Lechner JF (1995) Detection and quantitation of mutant Kras codon 12 restriction fragments by capillary electrophoresis. Anal Biochem 224:148–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Butler JM, Wilson MR, Reeder DJ (1998) Rapid mitochondrial DNA typing using restriction enzyme digestion of polymerase chain reaction amplicons followed by capillary electrophoresis separation with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis 19:119–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kourkine IV, Hestekin CN, Barron AE (2002) Technical challenges in applying capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism for routine genetic analysis. Electrophoresis 23:1375–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Atha DH, Kasprzak W, O'Connell CD, Shapiro BA (2001) Prediction of DNA single-strand conformation polymorphism: analysis by capillary electrophoresis and computerized DNA modeling. Nucleic Acids Res 29:4643–4653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu MS, Rampal S, Hsiang D, Chen FT (2000) Automated DNA mutation analysis by single-strand conformation polymorphism using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Mol Biotechnol 15:21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gillman LM, Gunton J, Turenne C Y, Wolfe J, Kabani AM (2001) Identification of Mycobacterium species by multiple–fluorescence PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol 39:3085–3091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Glavac D, Potocnik U, Podpecnik D, Zizek T, Smerkolj S, Ravnik-Glavac M (2002) Correlation of MFOLD- predicted DNA secondary structures with separation patterns obtained by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis. Hum Mutat 19:384–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rozycka M, Collins N, Stratton MR, Wooster R (2000) Rapid detection of DNA sequence variants by conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis. Genomics 70:34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Iwamoto T, Sonobe T, Hayashi K (2002) Novel algorithm identifies species in a polymycobacterial sample by fluorescence capillary electrophoresis-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol 40:4705–4712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raucci G, Maggi CA, Parente D (2000) Capillary electrophoresis of supercoiled DNA molecules: parameters governing the resolution of topoisomers and their separation from open forms. Anal Chem 72:821–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kringen P, Egedal S, Pedersen JC, et al (2002) BRCAl mutation screening using restriction endonuclase fingerprinting-single-strand conformation polymorphism in an automated capillary electrophoresis system. Electrophoresis 23:4085–4091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baba Y, Tomisaki R, Sumita C, et al (1995) Rapid typing of variable number of tandem repeat locus in the human apolipoprotein B gene for DNA diagnosis of heart disease by polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 16:1437–1440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lindstedt BA, Ryberg D, Zienolddiny S, Khan H, Haugen A (1999) Hrasl VNTR alleles as susceptibility markers for lung cancer: relationship to microsatellite instability in tumors. Anticancer Res 19:5523–5527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dib C, Faure S, Fizames C, et al (1996) A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites. Nature 380:152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dietrich WF, Miller JC, Steen RG, et al (1994) A genetic map of the mouse with 4,006 simple sequence length polymorphisms. Nature Genet 7:220–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Breen G, Sham P, Li T, Shaw D, Collier DA, St Clair D (1999) Accuracy and sensitivity of DNA pooling with microsatellite repeats using capillary electrophoresis. Mol Cell Probes 13:359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cook EH, Jr, Courchesne RY, Cox NJ, et al (1998) Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of autistic disorder, with 15q11-13 markers. Am J Hum Genet 62:1077–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gelfi C, Cossu G, Carta P, Serra M, Righetti PG (1995) Gene dosage in capillary electrophoresis: pre-natal diagnosis of Down's syndrome. J Chromatogr A 718: 405–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Latour P, Boutrand L, Levy N, et al (2001) Polymorphic short tandem repeats for diagnosis of the Charcot-Marie- Tooth lA duplication. Clin Chem 47:829–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Van Hoofstat DE, Deforce DL, Hubert De Pauw IP, Van den Eeckhout EG (1999) DNA typing of fingerprints using capillary electrophoresis: effect of dactyloscopic powders. Electrophoresis 20:2870–2876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moretti TR, Baumstark AL, Defenbaugh DA, Keys KM, Brown AL, Budowle B (2001) Validation of STR typing by capillary electrophoresis. J Forensic Sci 46:661–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Laszik A, Brinkmann B, Sotonyi P, Falus A (2000) Automated fluorescent detection of a 10 loci multiplex for paternity testing. Acta Biol Hung 51:99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lion T (2003) Summary: reports on quantitative analysis of chimerism after alloge-neic stem cell transplantation by PCR amplification of microsatellite markers and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. Leukemia 17:252–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Boland CR, Thibodeau SN, Hamilton SR, et al (1998) A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 58:5248–5257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Berg KD, Glaser CL, Thompson RE, Hamilton SR, Griffin CA, Eshleman JR (2000) Detection of microsatellite instability by fluorescence multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn 2:20–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wada T, Louhelainen J, Hemminki K, et al (2000) Bladder cancer: allelic deletions at and around the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene in relation to stage and grade. Clin Cancer Res 6:610–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yoshino I, Fukuyama S, Kameyama T, Shikada Y, Oda S, Maehara Y, Sugimachi K (2003) Detection of loss of heterozygosity by high-resolution fluorescent system in non-small cell lung cancer: association of loss of heterozygosity with smoking and tumor progression. Chest 123:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murthy SK, DiFrancesco LM, Ogilvie RT, Demetrick DJ (2002) Loss of het-erozygosity associated with uniparental disomy in breast carcinoma. Mod Pathol 15:1241–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fukunaga K, Wada T, Matsumoto H, Yoshihiro S, Matsuyama H Naito K (2002) Renal cell carcinoma: allelic loss at chromosome 9 using the fluorescent multiplex-polymerase chain reaction technique. Hum Pathol 33:910–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sell SM, Patel S, Stracner D, Meloni A (2001) Allelic loss analysis by capillary electrophoresis: an accurate, automated method for detection of deletions in solid tumors. Genet Test 5:267–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hussey J, Lockhart PJ, Seltzer W, et al (2002) Accurate determination of ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion in patients with intermediate-range repeats. Genet Test 6:217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    O'Connell CD, Atha DH, Jakupciak JP, Amos JA, Richie K (2002) Standardization of PCR amplification for fragile X trinucleotide repeat measurements. Clin Genet 61:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kiba Y, Baba Y (2001) Analysis of triplet-repeat DNA by capillary electrophore-sis. Methods Mol Biol 163:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nesi M, Righetti PG, Patrosso MC, Ferlini A, Chiari M (1994) Capillary electro-phoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products in polymer networks: the case of Kennedy's disease. Electrophoresis 15:644–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dorschner MO, Barden D, Stephens K (2002) Diagnosis of five spinocerebellar ataxia disorders by multiplex amplification and capillary electrophoresis. J Mol Diagn 4:108–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Williams LC, Hegde MR, Herrera G, Stapleton PM, Love DR (1999) Comparative semi-automated analysis of (CAG) repeats in the Huntington disease gene: use of internal standards. Mol Cell Prohes 13:283–289Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tian H, Brody LC, Landers JP (2000) Rapid detection of deletion, insertion, and substitution mutations via heteroduplex analysis using capillary- and microchip-based electrophoresis. Genome Res 10:1403–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    O'Connor F, Fitzgerald DJ, Murphy RP (2000) An automated heteroduplex assay for the Pi(A) polymorphism of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, multiplexed with two prothrombotic genetic markers. Thromb Haemost 83:248–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jackson HA, Bowen DJ, Worwood M (1997) Rapid genetic screening for haemo-chromatosis using heteroduplex technology. Br J Haematol 98:856–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bowen DJ, Standen GR, Granville S, Bowley S, Wood NA, Bidwell J (1997) Genetic diagnosis of factor V Leiden using heteroduplex technology. Thromb Haemost 77:119–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thomas GA, Williams DL, Soper SA (2001) Capillary electrophoresis-based heterodu-plex analysis with a universal heteroduplex generator for detection of point mutations associated with rifampin resistance in tuberculosis. Clin Chem 47:1195–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Khrapko K, Coller HA, Hanekamp JS, Thilly WG (1998) Identification of point mutations in mixtures by capillary electrophoresis hybridization. Nucleic Acids Res 26:5738–5740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kozlowski P, Krzyzosiak WJ (2001) Combined SSCP/duplex analysis by capillary electrophoresis for more efficient mutation detection. Nucleic Acids Res. 29:E71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kourkine IV, Hestekin CN, Magnusdottir SO, Barron AE (2002) Optimized sample preparation for tandem capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex analysis. Biotechniques 33:318–320, 322, 324, 325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tian H, Brody LC, Fan S, Huang Z, and Landers, JP (2001) Capillary and microchip electrophoresis for rapid detection of known mutations by combining allele-specific DNA amplification with heteroduplex analysis. Clin Chem 47:173–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bianchi N, Mischiati C, Feriotto G, et al (1994) Capillary electrophoresis: detection of hybridization between synthetic oligonucleotides and HIV-1 genomic DNA amplified by polymerase-chain reaction. J Virol Methods 47:321–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Armitage BA (2003) The impact of nucleic acid secondary structure on PNA hybridization. Drug Discoy. Today 8:222–228Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Basile A, Giuliani A, Pirri G, and Chiari M (2002) Use of peptide nucleic acid probes for detecting DNA single-base mutations by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 23:926–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Igloi GL (2001) Simultaneous identification of mutations by dual-parameter multiplex hybridization in peptide nucleic acid-containing virtual arrays. Genomics. 74:402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Freudemann T, von Brocke A, Bayer E (2001) On-line coupling of capillary gel electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry for oligonucleotide analysis. Anal Chem 73:2587–2593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McKeon J, Khaledi MG (2001) Quantitative nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of antisense oligonucleotides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis 22:3765–3770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gilar M, Belenky A, Budman Y, Smisek DL, Cohen AS. (1998) Study of phos-phorothioate-modified oligonucleotide resistance to 3′-exonuclease using capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr B: Biomed Sci Appl 714:13–20Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zellweger T, Miyake H, Cooper S, et al (2001) Antitumor activity of antisense clusterin oligonucleotides is improved in vitro and in vivo by incorporation of 2′-O-(2-methoxy)ethyl chemistry. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 298:934–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    DeDionisio LA (2001) Analysis of modified oligonucleotides with capillary gel electrophoresis. Methods Mol Biol 162:353–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lagu AL (1999) Applications of capillary electrophoresis in biotechnology. Electrophoresis 20:3145–3155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zhu L, Lee HK, Lin B, Yeung ES (2001) Spatial temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis for DNA mutation detection. Electrophoresis 22:3683–3687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kristensen AT, Bjorheim J, Ekstrom PO (2002) Detection of mutations in exon 8 of TP53 by temperature gradient 96-capillary array electrophoresis. Biotechniques 33:650–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Weinfeld M, Xing JZ, Lee J, Leadon SA, Le XC (2002) Immunofluorescence detection of radiation-induced DNA base damage. Mil Med 167:2–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fiscus RR, Leung CP, Yuen JP, Chan HC (2001) Quantification of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in a transformed uterine epithelial cell line, HRE-H9, using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detector (CE-LIF). Cell Biol Int 25:1007–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Reik, W., Dean, W., and Walter, J. (2001) Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development. Science 293:1089–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Panning B, Jaenisch R (1996) DNA hypomethylation can activate Xist expression and silence X-linked genes. Genes Dev 10:1991–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Li E, Beard C, Jaenisch R (1993) Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting. Nature 366:362–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jones PA, Baylin SB (2002) The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. Nature Rev. Genet 3:415–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fraga MF, Rodriguez R, Canal MJ (2000) Rapid quantification of DNA methylation by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 21: 2990–2994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stach D, Schmitz OJ, Stilgenbauer S, et al (2003) Capillary electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA methylation levels. Nucleic Acids Res 31:E2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kotler L, He H, Miller AW, Karger BL (2002) DNA sequencing of close to 1000 bases in 40 minutes by capillary electrophoresis using dimethyl sulfoxide and urea as denaturants in replaceable linear polyacrylamide solutions. Electrophoresis 23:3062–3070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Albarghouthi MN, Barron AE (2000) Polymeric matrices for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 21:4096–40111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dolnik V (1999) DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. J Biochem Biophys Methods 41:103–119 (review)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nicod JC, Largiader CR (2003) SNPs by AFLP (SBA): a rapid SNP isolation strategy for non-model organisms. Nucleic Acids Res 31:e19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Doglio A, Laffont C, Thyss S, Lefebvre JC (1998) Rapid genotyping of hepatitis C virus by direct cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified cDNAs and capillary elec-trophoresis analysis. Res Virol 149:219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Blazej RG, Paegel BM, Mathies RA (2003) Polymorphism ratio sequencing: a new approach for single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and genotyping. Genome Res 13:287–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Murphy KM, Eshleman JR (2002) Simultaneous sequencing of multiple polymer-ase chain reaction products and combined polymerase chain reaction with cycle sequencing in single reactions. Am J Pathol 161:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Woolley AT, Mathies RA (1994) Ultra-high- speed DNA fragment separations using microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis chips. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11,348–11,352Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gao Q, Shi Y, Liu S (2001) Multiple-channel microchips for high-throughput DNA analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Fresenius J Anal Chem 371:137–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Medintz IL, Paegel BM, Blazej RG, et al (2001) High-performance genetic analysis using microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microplates. Electrophoresis 22:3845–3856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Medintz IL, Berti L, Emrich CA, Tom J, Scherer JR, Mathies RA (2001) Genotyping energy-transfer-cassette-labeled short-tandem-repeat amplicons with capillary array electrophoresis microchannel plates. Clin Chem 47:1614–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wessagowit V, South AP (2002) Dermatological applications of DNA array technology. Clin Exp Dermatol 27:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gawron AJ, Martin RS, Lunte SM (2001) Microchip electrophoretic separation systems for biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis. Eur J Pharm Sci 14:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beatriz Sanchez-Vega
    • 1
  1. 1.Hospital General Universitario Reina SofiaMurciaSpain

Personalised recommendations