Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion

  • Graham S. Bailey
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


Immunodiffusion in gels encompasses a variety of techniques that are useful for the analysis of antigens and antibodies (1). The fundamental immunochemical principles behind their use are exactly the same as those that apply to antigen-antibody interactions in the liquid state. Thus, an antigen will react with its specific antibody to form a complex, the composition of which will depend on the nature, concentrations, and proportions of the initial reactants. As increasing amounts of a multivalent antigen are allowed to react with a fixed amount of antibody, precipitation occurs, in part because of extensive crosslinking between the reactant molecules. Initially, the antibody is in excess, and all the added antigen is present in the form of soluble antigen-antibody adducts. Addition of more antigen leads to the formation of an immune precipitate (precipitin) where all of the antigen and antibody molecules are in an extensive lattice of antigen-antibody complex. Further addition of antigen produces an excess of antigen and leads to a reduction in the amount of the precipitate as soluble antigen-antibody adducts are formed again. The analysis of such interactions occurring in gels is of much higher sensitivity and resolution than that for the liquid state, thus explaining the extensive use of immunochemical gel techniques.


Double Diffusion Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Moist Atmosphere Barbitone Buffer Double Immunodiffusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Oudin, J. (1980) Immunochemical analysis by antigen-antibody precipitation in gels, in Methods in Enzymology, vol. 70 (Van Vunakis, H. and Langone, J. J., eds.), Academic, New York, pp. 166–198.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ouchterlony, O. and Nilsson, L. A. (1986) Immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, in Handbook of Experimental Immunology, vol. 1 (Weir, D. M., Herzerberg, L. A., Blackwell, C., and Herzerberg, L. A., eds.), 4th ed., Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 32.1–32.50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham S. Bailey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological and Chemical SciencesUniversity of EssexColchesterUK

Personalised recommendations