Four-Vessel Occlusion Model in Rats

  • Ping Deng
  • Zao C. Xu
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Four-vessel occlusion model in rat induces transient forebrain ischemia that resembles cardiac arrest in clinical situations. In this model, two vertebral arteries are coagulated and two common carotid arteries are revers-ibly occluded. This model produces reliable outcome with selective, delayed cell death. For example, CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus die 2–3 days after ischemia, whereas CA3 neurons survive the same insult. The complications of this model include mortality and seizure. The methods of quantitative analysis of ischemic outcome are introduced. The advantages and limitations of this model are discussed.


Wistar rat Transient global ischemia Hippocampus Striatum Ischemic depolarization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Pulsinelli WA, Brierley JB. A new model of bilateral hemispheric ischemia in the unanesthetized rat. Stroke 1979;10(3):267–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schmidt-Kastner R, Paschen W, Ophoff BG, Hossmann KA. A modified four-vessel occlusion model for inducing incomplete forebrain ischemia in rats. Stroke 1989;20(7):938–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu ZC, Pulsinelli WA. Responses of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus to transient forebrain ischemia: an in vivo intracellular recording study. Neurosci Lett 1994;171(1–2):187–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamaguchi M, Calvert JW, Kusaka G, Zhang JH. One-stage anterior approach for four-vessel occlusion in rat. Stroke 2005;36(10):2212–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ginsberg MD, Busto R. Rodent models of cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1989;20(12): 1627–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xu ZC. Neurophysiological changes of spiny neurons in rat neostriatum after transient forebrain ischemia: an in vivo intracellular recording and staining study. Neuroscience 1995;67(4):823–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pulsinelli WA, Brierley JB, Plum F. Temporal profile of neuronal damage in a model of transient forebrain ischemia. Ann Neurol 1982;11(5):491–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu ZC, Gao TM, Ren Y. Neurophysiological changes associated with selective neu-ronal damage in hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Biol Signals Recept 1999;8(4–5):294–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pulsinelli WA, Jacewicz M. Animal models of brain ischemia. In: Barnett HJM, Stein BM, Mohr JP, Yatsu FM, eds. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1992:49–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ping Deng
    • 1
  • Zao C. Xu
    1. 1.Department of Anatomy & Cell BiologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

    Personalised recommendations