Apoptosis pp 131-139

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 559)

Application of In Vivo EPR for Tissue pO2 and Redox Measurements

  • Nadeem Khan
  • Dipak K. Das


The technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is more than 50 years old, but only recently it has been used for in vivo studies. Its limited application in the past was due to the problem of high nonresonant dielectric loss of the exciting frequency because of high water content in biological samples. However, with the development of spectrometers working at lower frequencies (1,200 MHz and below) during the last 15 years, it is now possible to conduct in vivo measurements on a variety of animals and isolated organs. This is further facilitated by the development of new resonators with high sensitivity and appropriate stability for in vivo applications. It now has become feasible to obtain new insights into the complex aspects of physiology and pathophysiology using in vivo EPR. Among several important applications of this technique, the in vivo tissue pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) and redox measurements seem to be the most extensive use of this technique. In this chapter, we describe the procedure for in vivo pO2 and redox measurements in animal models.

Key words

EPR ESR Oximetry pO2 Redox Nitroxide Heart In vivo 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadeem Khan
    • 1
  • Dipak K. Das
    • 2
  1. 1.EPR Center for Viable SystemsDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research CenterUniversity of Connecticut, School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA

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