Inflammation and Cancer pp 311-322

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 511)

Screening for Epstein–Barr Virus in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

  • Gulfaraz Khan


A link between chronic inflammation and cancer has been known for well over a century. However, direct evidence detailing the role of inflammation in carcinogenesis has been slow forthcoming. In Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a malignancy which has many features reminiscent of chronic inflammation, it is widely believed that Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the pathogenesis of a proportion of the cases. Indeed, this oncogenic virus has been consistently shown to be present in the malignant cells of HL. Furthermore, it is proposed that chronic inflammation, triggered by factors such as EBV, is likely to contribute to tumour cell proliferation, progression and inhibition of apoptosis. A sensitive and reliable method of demonstrating the presence of EBV at the cellular level is, therefore, of particular value when investigating a role for this ubiquitous virus in disease process. In this context, the technique of EBER in situ hybridization described here has become the gold standard for the detection of EBV in histological material.

Key words

Hodgkin's lymphoma Inflammation Reed–Sternberg cells EBV EBER in situ hybridization 


  1. 1.
    Yung, L. and Linch, D. (2003) Hodgkin's lymphoma Lancet 36, 943–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maggio, E., van den Berg, A., Diepstra, A., Kluiver, J., Visser, L., and Poppema, S. (2002) Chemokines, cytokines and their receptors in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines and tissues Ann Oncol 13, 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khan, G. (2006) Epstein–Barr virus, cytokines and inflammation: A cocktail for the pathogen-esis of Hodgkin Lymphoma Exp Hematol 34, 399–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balkwill, F. and Coussens, L.M. (2004) An inflammatory link Nature 431, 405–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pikarsky, E., Porat, R.M., Stein, I., Abramo-vitch, R., Amit, S., Kasem, S., et al. (2004) NF-kappaB functions as a tumour promoter in inflammation-associated cancer Nature 431, 461–466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baus, D. and Pfitzner, E. (2006) Specific function of STAT3, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in the regulation of proliferation and survival of classical Hodgkin lymphoma cells Int J Cancer 118, 1404–1413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rickinson, A.B. and Kieff, E. (2001) Epstein–Barr virus, p. 2575–2627. In D. Knipe and P. M. How-ley (eds.), Fields virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippin-cott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murray, P.G. and Young, L.S. (2003) Epstein– Barr virus and oncogenesis: From latent genes to tumours Oncogene 22, 5108–1521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lerner, M.R., Andrews, N.C., Miller, G., and Steitz, J.A. (1981) Two small RNAs encoded by Epstein–Barr virus and complexed with protein are precipitated by antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosis Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78, 805–809.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arrand, J.R., and Rymo, L. (1982) Characterization of the major Epstein–Barr virus-specific RNA in Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells J Virol 41, 376–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glickman, J.N., Howe, J.G., and Steitz, J.A. (1988) Structural analysis of EBER- 1 and EBER-2 ribonu-cleoprotein particles present in Epstein–Barr virus-infected cells J Virol 62, 902–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu, T.-C., Mann, R.B., Charache, P., et al. (1990) Detection of EBV gene expression in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease In J Cancer 46, 801–804.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khan, G., Coates, P.J., Kangro, H.O., and Slavin, G. (1992) Epstein–Barr virus encoded small RNAs: Targets for detection by in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes J Clin Path 45, 616–620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khan, G., Coates, P.J., Gupta, R.K., Kan-gro, H.O., and Slavin, G. (1992) Presence of Epstein–Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease is not exclusive to Reed-Sternberg cells Am J Pathol 140, 757–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Howe, J.G. and Shu, M.-D. (1988) Isolation and characterization of the genes for two small RNAs of herpesvirus papio and their comparison with Epstein–Barr virus-encoded EBER RNAs J Virol 62, 2790–2798.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gulfaraz Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesKingston UniversityKingston upon ThamesUK

Personalised recommendations