Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols

Volume 368 of the series Methods in Molecular Biology™ pp 15-38

The Principles of Freeze-Drying

  • Gerald AdamsAffiliated withLyosolutions

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This chapter provides an up-to-date overview of freeze-drying (lyophilization) with particulars relevance to stabilizing live cells or viruses for industrial applications as vaccines or seed culture. The chapter discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, validation, and the need to satisfy pharmaceutical regulatory requirements necessary for the commercial exploitation of freeze-dried products.

Key Words

Freeze-drying lyophilization lyoprotectants secondary drying sublimation