Carotenoid and Apocarotenoid Analysis by SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS

  • Daniele GiuffridaEmail author
  • Mariosimone Zoccali
  • Luigi Mondello
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2083)


Carotenoids and carotenoids oxidative and enzymatic cleavage products called apocarotenoids are very important bioactive molecules in plants and humans, with different biological functions. Both central and noncentral carotenoid cleavage products have been reported to occur in food and in humans, where they may act as bioactive molecules with functions that were previously attributed to the parent carotenoid. However, relatively few studies are available in the literature on the apocarotenoid occurrence in food and biological fluids which were mainly based on liquid chromatographic separation approaches and even fewer reports are available on the carotenoid and apocarotenoid separation by a direct online supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS) methodology. In comparison with offline approaches the online nature of the system drastically reduces the extraction time required in traditional solid/liquid extraction, which may require a few hours. Moreover, it reduces the analysis run time, as well as the risks of sample contamination and the possible occurrence of operator errors, improves run-to-run precision, and enables the setting of batch-type applications. The purpose of this contribution was to provide an updated description of the SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS methodology applied to carotenoid and apocarotenoid analysis in various matrices, although with a particular focus on the apocarotenoid applications.

Key words

Carotenoids Apocarotenoids Supercritical fluid extraction Supercritical fluid chromatography Mass spectrometry SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Giuffrida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariosimone Zoccali
    • 2
  • Luigi Mondello
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department BIOMORFUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Department CHIBIOFARAMUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  3. 3.Chromaleont s.r.l., at Department CHIBIOFARAM, Polo AnnunziataUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity Campus Bio-Medico of RomeRomeItaly

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