Protein Analysis in Food
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Proteins are an abundant component in all cells, and almost all except storage proteins are important for biological functions and cell structure. Food proteins are very complex. Many have been purified and characterized. Proteins can be classified by their composition, structure, biological function, or solubility properties. For example, simple proteins contain only amino acids upon hydrolysis, but conjugated proteins also contain nonamino acid components. The solubility as well as functional properties of proteins could be altered by denaturants. The analysis of proteins is complicated by the fact that some food components possess similar physicochemical properties. Numerous methods have been developed to measure protein content. The basic principles of these methods include the determinations of nitrogen, peptide bonds, aromatic amino acids, dye-binding capacity, ultraviolet absorptivity, and light scattering properties.