Using Foldscope to Monitor Superoxide Production and Cell Death During Pathogen Infection in Arabidopsis Under Different Nitrogen Regimes

  • Reena Arora
  • Pooja Singh
  • Aprajita Kumari
  • Pradeep Kumar Pathak
  • Kapuganti Jagadis GuptaEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2057)


Nitrogen nutrition plays a role in plant growth development and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. During pathogen infection various signal molecules such as reactive oxygen species, calcium, reactive nitrogen species, salicylic acid, and ethylene plays an important role. The form of nitrogen nutrition such as nitrate or ammonium plays a role in production of these molecules. Under nitrate nutrition NO is predominant. The produced NO plays a role in reacting with superoxide to generate peroxynitrite to induce cell death during hypersensitive response elicited by avirulent pathogens. Excess of ROS is also detrimental to plants and NO plays a role in regulating ROS. Hence it is important to observe superoxide production during infection. By using an avirulent Pseudomonas syringae and Arabidopsis differential N nutrition we show superoxide production in leaves using a paper microscope called Foldscope, which can be applied as a simple microscope to observe objects. The data also compared with root system infected with pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum. Taken together here we show that Foldscope is a cost-effective and powerful technique to visualize superoxide and cell death in plants during infection.

Key words

Foldscope Nitrate Ammonium Arabidopsis Pseudomonas syringae Fusarium oxysporum 



This work is supported by Foldscope project funded by DBT-Prakash lab initiative. PS and PKP are funded by UGC SRF and SRF.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reena Arora
    • 1
  • Pooja Singh
    • 1
  • Aprajita Kumari
    • 1
  • Pradeep Kumar Pathak
    • 1
  • Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Institute of Plant Genome ResearchNew DelhiIndia

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