Advertisement

Y-Shaped Maze to Test Spontaneous Object Recognition and Temporal Order Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Hala DarwishEmail author
  • Hiba Hasan
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2011)

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most frequent causes of brain damage. Cognitive deficits have been reported in the literature after mild-to-severe TBI affecting memory, language, executive functions, attention, and information processing speed. In this chapter, we describe a method to characterize cognitive impairment in rats following TBI of various intensities. The focus will be on spontaneous object recognition and temporal order memory in rats. These tests are performed in a Y-shaped maze. We have previously identified using this method persistent spontaneous object recognition and temporal order memory deficits following mild-to-moderate TBI in the animals up to 35-day postinjury.

Key words

Y-maze Traumatic brain injury Temporal order memory Object recognition memory Memory deficits 

References

  1. 1.
    Lundin A, de Boussard C, Edman G, Borg J (2006) Symptoms and disability until 3 months after mild TBI. Brain Inj 20:799–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith DH, Soares HD, Pierce JS, Perlman KG, Saatman KE, Meaney DF, Dixon CE, McIntosh TK (1995) A model of parasagittal controlled cortical impact in the mouse: cognitive and histopathologic effects. J Neurotrauma 12:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fox GB, Fan L, LeVasseur RA, Faden AI (1998) Effect of traumatic brain injury on mouse spatial and nonspatial learning in the Barnes circular maze. J Neurotrauma 15:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fox GB, Fan L, Levasseur RA, Faden AI (1998) Sustained sensory/motor and cognitive deficits with neuronal apoptosis following controlled cortical impact brain injury in the mouse. J Neurotrauma 15:599–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dikmen S, McLean A, Temkin N (1986) Neuropsychological and psychosocial consequences of minor head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49:1227–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chuah YM, Maybery MT, Fox AM (2004) The long-term effects of mild head injury on short-term memory for visual form, spatial location, and their conjunction in well-functioning university students. Brain Cogn 56:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Swanson HL (1999) What develops in working memory? A life span perspective. Dev Psychol 35:986–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yonelinas AP, Kroll NE, Quamme JR, Lazzara MM, Sauve MJ, Widaman KF, Knight RT (2002) Effects of extensive temporal lobe damage or mild hypoxia on recollection and familiarity. Nat Neurosci 5:1236–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mishkin M, Suzuki WA, Gadian DG, Vargha-Khadem F (1997) Hierarchical organization of cognitive memory. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 352:1461–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skinner EI, Fernandes MA (2007) Neural correlates of recollection and familiarity: a review of neuroimaging and patient data. Neuropsychologia 45:2163–2179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bigler ED (2008) Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 14:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saunders JC, McDonald S, Richardson R (2006) Loss of emotional experience after traumatic brain injury: findings with the startle probe procedure. Neuropsychology 20:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bigler ED (2007) Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology 21:515–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wais PE, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire LR (2006) The hippocampus supports both the recollection and the familiarity components of recognition memory. Neuron 49:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yonelinas AP, Otten LJ, Shaw KN, Rugg MD (2005) Separating the brain regions involved in recollection and familiarity in recognition memory. J Neurosci 25:3002–3008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buffalo EA, Reber PJ, Squire LR (1998) The human perirhinal cortex and recognition memory. Hippocampus 8:330–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barker GR, Bird F, Alexander V, Warburton EC (2007) Recognition memory for objects, place, and temporal order: a disconnection analysis of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex. J Neurosci 27:2948–2957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Langeluddecke PM, Lucas SK (2003) Quantitative measures of memory malingering on the Wechsler Memory Scale—third edition in mild head injury litigants. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 18:181–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Umile EM, Sandel ME, Alavi A, Terry CM, Plotkin RC (2002) Dynamic imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: support for the theory of medial temporal vulnerability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:1506–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mitchell JB, Laiacona J (1998) The medial frontal cortex and temporal memory: tests using spontaneous exploratory behaviour in the rat. Behav Brain Res 97:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blumenfeld RS, Ranganath C (2007) Prefrontal cortex and long-term memory encoding: an integrative review of findings from neuropsychology and neuroimaging. Neuroscientist 13:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luo J, Nguyen A, Villeda S, Zhang H, Ding Z, Lindsey D, Bieri G, Castellano JM, Beaupre GS, Wyss-Coray T (2014) Long-term cognitive impairments and pathological alterations in a mouse model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol 5:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heim LR, Bader M, Edut S, Rachmany L, Baratz-Goldstein R, Lin R, Elpaz A, Qubty D, Bikovski L, Rubovitch V, Schreiber S, Pick CG (2017) The invisibility of mild traumatic brain injury: impaired cognitive performance as a silent symptom. J Neurotrauma 34:2518–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Darwish H, Mahmood A, Schallert T, Chopp M, Therrien B (2014) Simvastatin and environmental enrichment effect on recognition and temporal order memory after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 28:211–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hariri School of Nursing, Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology Sciences, Faculty of MedicineAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations