In Vivo Mouse Models to Study Pneumococcal Host Interaction and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease
Animal models are fundamental tools to study the biology of physiological processes and disease pathogenesis. To study invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), many models using mice in particular have been established and developed during recent years. Thanks to the advances of the research in the pneumococcal field, nowadays, there is the possibility to use defined mouse models to study each disease caused by the pneumococcus. In this chapter mouse models for pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are described. Since pneumococci are commensal pathogens found to a high extent in healthy individuals. Hence, we also describe a mouse model for nasopharyngeal colonization.
Key wordsIn vivo Mouse models Pneumonia Meningitis Invasive pneumococcal disease Colonization Coinfection
- 1.Troeger C, Blacker BF, Khalil IA, Rao PC, Cao S, Zimsen SRM, Albertson S, Stanaway JD, Deshpande A, Farag T, et al (2018) Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Infect Dis. 18(11):1191–1210. Published online 2018/09/24 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30310-4
- 2.Malley R, Weiser JN (2008) Animal models of pneumococcal colonization. In: Siber GR, Klugman KP, Mäkelä PH (ed.) Pneumococcal vaccines: the impact of coniugate vaccine. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 59–66Google Scholar
- 3.Briles DE, Hollingshead SK, Jonsdottir I (2008) Animal models of invasive pneumococcal disease. In: Siber GR, Klugman KP, Mäkelä PH (ed.), Pneumococcal vaccines: the impact of conjugate vaccine. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 47–58Google Scholar
- 11.Matrosovich M, Matrosovich T, Garten W, Klenk H-D Virol J 3(1):63Google Scholar
- 14.Rayamajhi M, Redente EF, Condon TV et al (2011) Non-surgical intratracheal instillation of mice with analysis of lungs and lung draining lymph nodes by flow cytometry. J Vis Exp 51:e2702Google Scholar