Pretreatment: Removing DNA Contamination from Ancient Bones and Teeth Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Phosphate
DNA isolated from ancient bones and teeth comprises a mixture of microbial contamination and DNA from the organism under study. In addition, analyses of ancient human remains are often complicated by contamination with present-day human DNA, which can be introduced during excavation and subsequent handling of the specimens. In most cases, the relative abundance of contaminant DNA is much greater than that of the target organism. Here we present two techniques for reducing the proportion of contaminant DNA in bones and teeth. The first and most efficient technique uses a sodium hypochlorite (bleach) pretreatment to destroy contaminant DNA that may be bound or otherwise attached to the surface of bone/tooth powder. The second, less destructive pretreatment uses a phosphate buffer to release surface-bound DNA.
Key wordsAncient DNA DNA contamination Pretreatment Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) Sodium phosphate DNA extraction
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