Astrocytes pp 97-104 | Cite as

Cisterna Magna Injection in Rats to Study Glymphatic Function

  • Marta Ramos
  • Nicholas Burdon Bechet
  • Roberta Battistella
  • Chiara Pavan
  • Anna L. R. Xavier
  • Maiken Nedergaard
  • Iben LundgaardEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1938)


The recently discovered glymphatic system, which supports brain-wide clearance of metabolic waste, has become the subject of intense research within the past few years. Its nomenclature arose due to its functionally analogous nature to the lymphatic system in combination with glial cells that are part of its anatomical boundaries. The influx of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from perivascular spaces into the brain interstitium acts to clear intraparenchymal solutes. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus and flows from the ventricles to the subarachnoid space via the cisterna magna, and as such the injection of tracer molecules into any one of these spaces could be used for studying CSF movement through the glymphatic system. Of these options, the cisterna magna is most favorable as it offers a route of entry that does not involve craniotomy. Herein we describe the cisterna magna (CM) injection procedure carried out in rats, essential for studying glymphatic influx and efflux dynamics.

Key words

Glymphatic system Cisterna magna injection Cerebrospinal fluid Tracer 



The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is acknowledged for generous support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Ramos
    • 1
  • Nicholas Burdon Bechet
    • 1
  • Roberta Battistella
    • 1
  • Chiara Pavan
    • 2
  • Anna L. R. Xavier
    • 2
  • Maiken Nedergaard
    • 3
    • 4
  • Iben Lundgaard
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Experimental Medical Science and Wallenberg Center for Molecular MedicineLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial TherapeuticsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Center for Basic and Translational NeuroscienceUniversity of Copenhagen, DK-2200CopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

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