Advertisement

Sorghum pp 141-151 | Cite as

Identification and Quantification of Carotenoids and Tocochromanols in Sorghum Grain by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Darwin Ortiz
  • Mario G. FerruzziEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1931)

Abstract

Carotenoids and tocochromanols are lipid-soluble secondary plant metabolites that are essential for the normal functioning of plants and, in some cases function as a source of vitamin A and E in humans. Enhancement of the provitamin A carotenoid and tocochromanols levels in sorghum and other cereal grains through traditional breeding and transgenic methods has increased in recent years with interest in biofortification of grains to combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. With this increase in research, reliable methodology for the extraction, identification, and quantification of individual carotenoids and tocochromanols species from sorghum and other cereal grains is essential. Here, we describe a basic method for extraction of carotenoid and tocochromanols adapted to sorghum grain and chromatographic condition for separation, identification, and quantification of individual carotenoid using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system.

Key words

Carotenoids Vitamin A Vitamin E Lutein Zeaxanthin β-carotene Tocopherols Tocotrienols 

References

  1. 1.
    Boon CS, McClements DJ, Weiss J, Decker EA (2010) Factors influencing the chemical stability of carotenoids in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:515–532.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1040839080256588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    IUPAC (1974) Nomenclature of carotenoids. Pure Appl Chem 41:405–431Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Daitch CE (1992) Separation and quantification of carotenoids in human plasma. Methods Enzymol 213:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ross AC (2012) In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR (eds) “Vitamin A,” in modern nutrition in health and disease. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 260–277Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva VA, Ducros V, Jeandel C, Julia C, Hercberg S, Galian P (2014) Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function. BJN 111:915–923.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513003188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu S, Lee IM, Ajani U, Cole SR, Buring JE, Manson JE (2001) Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: the Physicians' health study. Int J Epidemiol 30:130–135.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/30.1.130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Takata Y, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Gao J, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO (2013) Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and lung cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Men's health study (2002-2009). Nutr Cancer 65:51–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.741757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vaicaitiene R, Luksiene DK, Paunksnis A, Cerniauskiene LR, Domarkiene S, Cimbalas A (2003) Age-related maculopathy and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits in urban elderly. Medicina (Kaunas) 39:1231–1236Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bernstein PS, Li B, Vachali PP, Gorusupudi A, Shyam R, Henriksen BS, Nolan JM (2016) Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: the basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Prog Retin Eye Res 50:34–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.10.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rubin LP, Ross AC, Stephensen CB, Bohn T, Tanumihardjo SA (2017) Metabolic effects of inflammation on vitamin A and carotenoids in humans and animal models. Adv Nutr 8:197–212.  https://doi.org/10.3945/an.116.014167CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fiedor J, Burda K (2014) Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease. Nutrients 6:466–488.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020466CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooperstone JL, Schwartz SJ (2016) Recent insights into health benefits of carotenoids. In: Carle R, Schweiggert R (eds) Handbook on natural pigments in food and beverages. Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam, pp 473–497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100371-8.00020-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanumihardjo SA, Nestel P (2005) Beta-carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potato improves the vitamin A status of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response test. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1080–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harrison EH (2012) Mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1821:70–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.06.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mène-Saffrané L, DellaPenna D (2010) Biosynthesis, regulation and functions of tocochromanols in plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48(5):301–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.11.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Traber MG (2013) Chapter 4. Vitamin E. In: Zempleni J, Suttie JW, Gregory JF III, Stover PJ (eds) Handbook of vitamins, 5th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b15413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Traber MG, Atkinson J (2007) Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more. Free Radic Biol Med 43(1):4–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.024CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mène-Saffrané L, Pellaud S (2017) Current strategies for vitamin E biofortification of crops. Curr Opin Biotechnol 44:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Che P, Zhao ZY, Glassman K, Dolde D, Hu TX, Jones TJ, Gruis DF, Obukosia S, Wambugu F, Albertsen MC (2016) Elevated vitamin E content improves all-trans β-carotene accumulation and stability in biofortified sorghum. PNAS 113(39):11040–11045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van-Breemen RB, Dong L, Pajkovic ND (2012) Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids. Int J Mass Spectrom 312:163–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2011.07.030CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Albahrani AA, Rotarou V, Roche PJ, Greaves RF (2016) A simultaneous quantitative method for vitamins A, D and E in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 159:41–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.02.019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2001) A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods. ILSI human nutrition institute. One Thomas circle. NW, Washington DC, pp 20005–25802Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lipkie TE, de Moura FF, Zhao ZY, Albertsen MC, Che P, Glassman K, Ferruzzi MG (2013) Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from transgenic provitamin A biofortified sorghum. J Agric Food Chem 61(24):5764–5771.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf305361sCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Britton G (1995) UV/visible spectroscopy. In: Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H (eds) Carotenoids: spec- troscopy, vol 1B. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 13–63Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Podda M, Weber C, Traber MG, Packer L (1996) Simultaneous determination of tissue tocopherols, tocotrienols, ubiquinols, and ubiquinones. J Lipid Res 37:893–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Azevedo-Meleiro CH, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2004) Confirmation of the identity of the carotenoids of tropical fruits by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. J Food Compos Anal 17:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food SciencePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Plants for Human Health InstituteNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations