Clinical Use of the Calcium-Binding S100B Protein, a Biomarker for Head Injury

  • Ramona Astrand
  • Johan Undén
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1929)


S100B is a calcium-binding protein most abundant in neuronal tissue. It is expressed in glial cells and Schwann cells and exerts both intra- and extracellular effects. Depending on the concentration, secreted S100B exerts either trophic or toxic effects. Its functions have been extensively studied but are still not fully understood. It can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid and in blood, and increased S100B level in blood can be seen after, e.g., traumatic brain injury, certain neurodegenerative disorders, and malignant melanoma. This chapter provides a short background of protein S100B, commercially available methods of analysis, and its clinical use, especially as a biomarker in minor head injury.

Key words

S100B EF hand Calcium Biomarker Traumatic brain injury Minor head injury Malignant melanoma Neurodegenerative diseases 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramona Astrand
    • 1
  • Johan Undén
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryRigshospitalet, Copenhagen University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive CareLänssjukhuset HallandHalmstadSweden

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