Reviewing the Crystal Structure of S100Z and Other Members of the S100 Family: Implications in Calcium-Regulated Quaternary Structure

  • Vito CalderoneEmail author
  • Marco Fragai
  • Claudio Luchinat
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1929)


This paper takes the cue from the previously solved crystal structure of human apo-S100Z and compares it with that of the calcium-bound S100Z from zebrafish in order to stress, for this particular S100, the significant role of the presence of calcium in promoting supramolecular assemblies with likely biological meaning. This consideration is then expanded through a wider review on analogous situations concerning all other S100s for which there is crystallographic o biochemical evidence of how the presence of calcium promotes the formation of quaternary complexes.

The paper also deals with some considerations on the quality of the crystals obtained for the solved members of this family and on the need for experimental phasing for solving some of the structures where the good general sequence homology among the members of the family would have suggested molecular replacement (MR) as the easiest way to solve them.

These considerations, along with the PCA analysis carried out on all the known S100s, further demonstrate that calcium plays a fundamental role in triggering quaternary structure formation for several members of this family of proteins.

Key words

S100Z EF hand Oligomerization Calcium PCA 



We thank the staff members of ID-29 beamline at ESRF (Grenoble, France) for assistance during data collection.

This work was supported by Instruct, part of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and supported by national member subscriptions. Specifically, we thank the EU ESFRI Instruct Core Centre CERM-Italy.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vito Calderone
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marco Fragai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudio Luchinat
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CERM, University of FlorenceSesto FiorentinoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry Ugo SchiffUniversity of FlorenceSesto FiorentinoItaly

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