Determination of Polarization of Resident Macrophages and Their Effect on the Tumor Microenvironment

  • Ioannis S. Pateras
  • Tomer CooksEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1928)


Interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment have been long established as a cardinal hallmark of tumorigenesis and metastasis. To that end, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been studied extensively and were found to be typically correlated with poor prognosis in various cancers. TAMs are key elements of cancer-associated inflammation promoting cancer progression by increasing angiogenesis, inducing immunosuppression of the tumor tissue, and remodeling the extracellular matrix favoring invasion and metastasis. Since resident macrophages are characterized by substantial diversity and plasticity, understanding their polarization patterns in response to microenvironmental cues is a prime focus in the field. This chapter demonstrates an efficient manner to characterize polarization patterns of macrophages inside tumor tissues.

Key words

Resident macrophages Tumor-associated macrophages Polarization Immunohistochemistry Flow cytometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Department of Histology and EmbryologySchool of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Faculty of Health Sciences, The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and GeneticsBen Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael

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