Determination of Phototropism and Polarotropism in Fern Protonemal Cells

  • Masamitsu Wada
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1924)


Fern protonemal cells grow at their apices as long, undivided filamentous cells toward red (or weak white) light and change their growth direction if the light direction is changed (i.e., phototropism). When protonemata growing between an agar surface and cover glass are irradiated with polarized red light through the glass on the protonemal side, they start growing at the point where the direction of the vibration plane of polarized light and the transition moment of the photoreceptor, which is parallel to the plasma membrane of the cell’s apical part, are equal (i.e., polarotropism). Herein, the methods on how to induce and observe this protonemal phototropism and polarotropism are described.

Key words

Adiantum capillus-veneris Blue light Fern Neochrome Phototropins Phytochrome Polarized light Protonema Red light 



I would like to thank Kotaro Yamamoto for the invitation to write this article and critical reading and suggestions of this manuscript. I would also thank Takashi Murata, Akeo Kadota, and Hidenori Tsuboi for their critical reading of the manuscript. Our works based on this article are dependent on the long-time support of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masamitsu Wada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceTokyo Metropolitan UniversityHachiojiJapan

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