Advertisement

Physiological Characterization of Phototropism in Arabidopsis Seedlings

  • Ken HagaEmail author
  • Taro Kimura
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1924)

Abstract

To date, many mutants have been isolated from dicot plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, and the physiological roles of the isolated genes have been identified. Molecular genetic analyses have usually been conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis to identify blue-light photoreceptors and key signaling components in phototropic responses. Despite these investigations, several molecular mechanisms involved in phototropism remain unknown, possibly because detailed physiological analyses have not been conducted properly in the isolated mutants. This chapter describes an approach for the detailed investigation of hypocotyl and root phototropism in Arabidopsis seedlings. The information provided here is expected to facilitate the analysis of phototropic responses in other plant species.

Key words

Arabidopsis Dicot Hypocotyl Root Phototropism Fluence-response curve 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Professor Moritoshi Iino (Osaka City University) and the members of his laboratory for providing useful technical advice, and Professor Tatsuya Sakai (Niigata University) for providing useful comments and technical support. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (No. 24657027 and No. 17K07451 to K. H., No. 16J01942 to T. K.) and (in part) by a Grant for Basic Science Research Projects from the Sumitomo Foundation to K. H.

References

  1. 1.
    Iino M (2001) Phototropism in higher plants. In: Häder D, Lebert M (eds) Photomovement. ESP comprehensive series in photosciences, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 659–811Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whippo CW, Hangarter RP (2006) Phototropism: bending towards enlightenment. Plant Cell 18:1110–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liscum E, Askinosie SK, Leuchtman DL, Morrow J, Willenburg KT, Coats DR (2014) Phototropism: growing towards an understanding of plant movement. Plant Cell 26:38–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fankhauser C, Christie JM (2015) Plant phototropic growth. Curr Biol 25:384–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Poff KL, Janoudi AK, Rosen ES, Orbović V, Konjević R, Fortin MC, Scott TK (1994) The physiology of tropisms. In: Meyerowitz EM, Somerville CR (eds) Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp 639–664Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christie JM, Murphy AS (2013) Shoot phototropism in higher plants: New light through old concepts. Am J Bot 100:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janoudi AK, Poff KL (1991) Characterization of adaptation in phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 95:517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu Y, Iino M (1996) Effects of red light on the fluence-response relationship for pulse-induced phototropism of maize coleoptiles. Plant Cell Environ 19:609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu Y, Iino M (1996) Phytochrome is required for the occurrence of time-dependent phototropism in maize coleoptiles. Plant Cell Environ 19:1379–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Janoudi AK, Konjević R, Whitelam G, Gordon W, Poff KL (1997) Both phytochrome A and phytochrome B are required for the normal expression of phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol Plant 101:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Whippo CW, Hangarter RP (2004) Phytochrome modulation of blue-light-induced phototropism. Plant Cell Environ 27:1223–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haga K, Sakai T (2012) PIN auxin efflux carriers are necessary for pulse-induced but not continuous light-induced phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 160:763–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haga K, Hayashi K, Sakai T (2014) PINOID AGC kinases are necessary for phytochrome-mediated enhancement of hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 166:1535–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haga K, Tsuchida-Mayama T, Yamada M, Sakai T (2015) Arabidopsis ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 contributes to the adaptation to high-intensity light in phototropic responses. Plant Cell 27:1098–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sakai T, Haga K (2012) Molecular genetic analysis of phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol 53:1517–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goyal A, Szarzynska B, Fankhauser C (2013) Phototropism: at the crossroads of light-signaling pathways. Trends Plant Sci 18:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christie JM, Yang H, Richter GL, Sullivan S, Thomson CE, Lin J, Titapiwatanakun B, Ennis M, Kaiserli E, Lee OR, Adamec J, Peer WA, Murphy AS (2011) phot1 inhibition of ABCB19 primes lateral auxin fluxes in the shoot apex required for phototropism. PLoS Biol 9:e1001076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haga K, Sakai T (2013) Differential roles of auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins in hypocotyl phototropism of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings depend on the direction of light stimulus. Plant Signal Behav 8:e22556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kimura T, Haga K, Shimizu-Mitao Y, Takebayashi Y, Kasahara H, Hayashi K, Kakimoto T, Sakai T (2018) Asymmetric auxin distribution is not required to establish root phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol 59:828–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nagashima A, Uehara Y, Sakai T (2008) The ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 is involved in the inhibitory effects of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid on the phototropic and gravitropic responses of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plant Cell Physiol 49:1250–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haga K, Sakai T (2015) PINOID function in root phototropism as a negative regulator. Plant Signal Behav 10:e998545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okada K, Shimura Y (1992) Mutational analysis of root gravitropism and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Aust J Plant Physiol 19:439–448Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iino M, Carr DJ (1981) Safelight for photomorphogenetic studies: infrared radiation and infrared-scope. Plant Sci Lett 23:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim K, Shin J, Lee SH, Kweon HS, Maloof JN, Choi G (2011) Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1729–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fitzelle KJ, Kiss JZ (2001) Restoration of gravitropic sensitivity in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis by hypergravity. J Exp Bot 52:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liscum E, Briggs WR (1995) Mutations in the NPH1 locus of Arabidopsis disrupt the perception of phototropic stimuli. Plant Cell 7:47–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang KX, Xu HH, Yuan TT, Zhang L, Lu YT (2013) Blue-light-induced PIN3 polarization for root negative phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Plant J 76:308–321Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sakai T, Wada T, Ishiguro S, Okada K (2000) RPT2: A signal transducer of the phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Fundamental EngineeringNippon Institute of TechnologyMiyashiroJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations