Bacteriophages pp 191-198 | Cite as

Duckweed (Lemna minor) and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as Bacterial Infection Model Systems

  • Fatima Kamal
  • Alina Radziwon
  • Carly M. Davis
  • Jonathan J. DennisEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1898)


Alternative animal host models of bacterial infection have been developed which reproduce some of the disease conditions observed in higher animals. Analogously, plants are useful for modeling bacterial pathogenesis, in some cases revealing broadly conserved infection mechanisms. Similar to animals, plants have been shown to possess innate immune systems that respond to invading viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Plant infection models often yield results faster, are more convenient, and less expensive than many animal infection models. Here, we describe the use of two different plant-based infection models for the discovery of virulence genes and factors involved in bacterial pathogenesis.

Key words

Bacteria Pathogenesis Infection models Virulence Virulence factors Duckweed Alfalfa 



We gratefully acknowledge the developmental input provided by University of Alberta past students E.M. Dockery, B. Bourrie, and E.L. Thomson.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatima Kamal
    • 1
  • Alina Radziwon
    • 1
  • Carly M. Davis
    • 1
  • Jonathan J. Dennis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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