Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (hereafter SA-β-gal) staining has now been employed for more than 20 years to identify the presence of senescent cells (Dimri et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9363–9367, 1995). These cells, characterized by a permanent cell-cycle arrest (Hayflick and Moorhead, Exp Cell Res 25:585–621, 1961) and the production of a distinct secretory phenotype of cytokines, chemokines, and proteases (Coppe et al., PLoS Biol 6:2853–2868, 2008), have received much attention in recent years for their impacts on diverse biological processes. Here we describe a method to identify and quantify the specific cells that become senescent in vivo using transmission electron microscopy after SA-β-gal staining that can be used in countless scenarios.
Cellular senescence Transmission electron microscopy Senescence-associated β-galactosidase
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This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01AG053229), the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the Ellison Medical Foundation, and the Mayo Clinic Children’s Research Center to D.J.B.
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