Nanotoxicity Assessment Using Embryonic Zebrafish
The emergence of nanomaterials in industrial processing and consumer products has generated an increased presence of nano-enabled products in the environment and now pose an increased risk of exposure to living organisms. However, assessing the risks of nanomaterials is a challenging task because of a large variety and great variability in their properties. Here, we describe a methodology for assessing toxicity and evaluate potential risks posed by nanomaterials using zebrafish embryos as a model organism. Zebrafish are a well-established organism that has a number of advantages over other biological models. These include optical transparency, similar structure and arrangement of organs, and conserved genetic pathways compared to other vertebrates. Their rapid development and high numbers of embryos enables high throughput screening to study toxicity of a large number of nanomaterials. The method described in this chapter can be used as a universal screening approach to assess toxicity of any type of nanomaterials, determine both lethal and sublethal effects, measure LD50 doses, evaluate morphological and organ defects, cell apoptosis, and production of reactive species.
Key wordsNanomaterials Nanoparticles Nanotoxicity Zebrafish embryos Viability assay Histology Apoptosis Oxidative stress
- 5.Andreescu S, Gheorghiu M, Özel RE, Wallace KN (2011) Methodologies for toxicity monitoring and nanotechnology risk assessment. In: Biotechnology and nanotechnology risk assessment: minding and managing the potential threats around US, vol 1079. ACS Symposium Series, vol 1079. American Chemical Society, pp. 141–180. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2011-1079.ch007Google Scholar
- 9.George S, Xia T, Rallo R, Zhao Y, Ji Z, Lin S, Wang X, Zhang H, France B, Schoenfeld D, Damoiseaux R, Liu R, Lin S, Bradley KA, Cohen Y, Nel AE (2011) Use of a high throughput screening approach coupled with in vivo zebrafish embryo screening to develop hazard ranking for engineered nanomaterials. ACS Nano 5(3):1805–1817. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn102734sCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11.Westerfield M (2007) The zebrafish book: a guide for the laboratory use of zebrafish (Danio rerio), 5th edn. University of Oregon Press, Eugene, ORGoogle Scholar
- 12.Nusslein-Volhard C, Dahm R (2002) Zebrafish. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar