Rice Grain Quality Benchmarking Through Profiling of Volatiles and Metabolites in Grains Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

  • Cindy Llorente
  • Rosario Jimenez
  • Jackie
  • Yariv Brotman
  • Alisdair R. Fernie
  • Nese SreenivasuluEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1892)


Gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer is widely used to profile volatiles and metabolites from the homogenized rice flour obtained from mature grains. Rice grains consist of central endosperm which stores majorly starch and, in addition, accumulate various storage proteins as storage reserves. The outer nutritious aleurone layer stores lipids, sugar alcohols, volatiles, antioxidants, vitamins, and various micronutrients. Once paddy sample is dehulled, milled, and ground cryogenically, the brown rice flour is subjected to extraction of primary metabolites and volatiles using an appropriate extraction method. In metabolite profiling of the liquid extract obtained from the rice sample, mixture is initially subjected to methoxyamination then silylation before being subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. Peaks obtained are processed for noise reduction and specific signal selection. Volatile compounds are initially extracted using a solid phase adsorbent prior to analysis. All these compounds, metabolites, and volatiles are detected in the mass selective detector by fragmentation at 70 eV ionization energy and the resultant mass spectrum compared with a built-in library of compounds. Data mined from the gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis are then subjected to post-processing statistical analysis.

Key words

Rice Aroma Metabolites Metabolite profile analyses 



This work has been supported under the CGIAR thematic area Global Rice Agri-Food System CRP, RICE, Stress-Tolerant Rice for Africa and South Asia (STRASA) Phase III funding.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy Llorente
    • 1
  • Rosario Jimenez
    • 1
  • Jackie
    • 2
  • Yariv Brotman
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alisdair R. Fernie
    • 3
    • 5
  • Nese Sreenivasulu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.International Rice Research InstituteLos BañosPhilippines
  2. 2.Shimadzu (Asia Pacific) Pte. Ltd.SingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant PhysiologyPotsdam-GolmGermany
  4. 4.Department of Life SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeershebaIsrael
  5. 5.Center of Plant System Biology and BiotechnologyPlovdivBulgaria

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