Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can improve human intraintestinal conditions. One reason is that ingestion of LAB prevents bacterial diarrhea. Furthermore, inflammation of human intestines can be caused by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. This chapter describes a method of LPS elimination using lactic acid bacteria (LAB). First, the LPS concentration is assayed using an LPS assay kit with the limulus cascade reaction made by limulus amebocyte lysate. Some LABs, four bacillus strains and one coccus strain, have LPS-elimination activity. Particularly, the coccus strain Pediococcus pentosaceus eliminates LPS to 43%. The cells fractionate and eliminate four fractions: the extracellular fraction, cell membrane fraction, cytoplasm fraction, and cell wall fraction. Only the cell wall digesting fraction eliminates LPS to 45%. Results confirm that the LAB eliminates all LPS having O-antigen under a low-sugar medium condition at temperatures of 15–30 °C. This method can be used for assay of LPS elimination by LABs exactly and easily for the probiotics field.
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