Advertisement

Xenopus pp 1-17 | Cite as

Husbandry, General Care, and Transportation of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis

  • Sean McNamara
  • Marcin Wlizla
  • Marko E. Horb
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1865)

Abstract

Maintenance of optimal conditions such as water parameters, diet, and feeding is essential to a healthy Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis colony and thus to the productivity of the lab. Our prior husbandry experience as well as the rapid growth of the National Xenopus Resource has given us a unique insight into identifying and implementing these optimal parameters into our husbandry operations. Here, we discuss our standard operating procedures that will be of use to both new and established Xenopus facilities.

Key words

Xenopus laevis Xenopus tropicalis Aquatic recirculating systems Husbandry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The National Xenopus Resource is supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (P40 OD010997).

References

  1. 1.
    Gurdon JB, Hopwood N (2000) The introduction of Xenopus laevis into developmental biology: of empire, pregnancy testing and ribosomal genes. Int J Dev Biol 44:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tandon P, Conlon F, Furlow JD, Horb ME (2017) Expanding the genetic toolkit in Xenopus: approaches and opportunities for human disease modeling. Dev Biol 426:325–335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.04.009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wlizla M, Falco R, Peshkin L et al (2017) Luteinizing hormone is an effective replacement for hCG to induce ovulation in Xenopus. Dev Biol 426:442–448.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.05.028CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pearl EJ, Grainger RM, Guille M, Horb ME (2012) Development of Xenopus resource centers: the National Xenopus Resource and the European Xenopus Resource Center. Genesis 50:155–163.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dvg.22013CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hem LJ, Rusten B, Ødegaard H (1994) Nitrification in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Water Res 28:1425–1433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)90310-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Showell C, Conlon FL (2009) Natural mating and tadpole husbandry in the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2009: doi:  https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5292
  7. 7.
    Pearl E, Morrow S, Noble A et al (2017) An optimized method for cryogenic storage of Xenopus sperm to maximise the effectiveness of research using genetically altered frogs. Theriogenology 92:149–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.01.007CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morrow S, Gosálvez J, López-Fernández C et al (2016) Effects of freezing and activation on membrane quality and DNA damage in Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil Dev 29:1556–1566.  https://doi.org/10.1071/RD16190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Jesús Andino F, Chen G, Li Z et al (2012) Susceptibility of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to infection by the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 correlates with a reduced and delayed innate immune response in comparison with adult frogs. Virology 432:435–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2012.07.001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Godfrey D, Williamson H, Silverman J, Small PLC (2007) Newly identified Mycobacterium species in a Xenopus laevis colony. Comp Med 57:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reed KD, Ruth GR, Meyer JA, Shukla SK (2000) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a breeding colony of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Emerg Infect Dis 6:196–199.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000216CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tinsley RC, Coxhead PG, Stott LC et al (2015) Chytrid fungus infections in laboratory and introduced Xenopus laevis populations: assessing the risks for U.K. native amphibians. Biol Conserv 184:380–388.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.034CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Green SL, Bouley DM, Josling CA, Fayer R (2003) Cryptosporidiosis associated with emaciation and proliferative gastritis in a laboratory-reared South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Comp Med 53:81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Godfrey EW, Sanders GE (2004) Effect of water hardness on oocyte quality and embryo development in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Comp Med 54:170–175PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Xenopus ResourceMarine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA

Personalised recommendations