First publications of successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco were published more than 30 years ago. Protocols for Agrobacterium-based transformation as well as biolistic bombardment and PEG transformation of protoplasts are available for more than 150 plant species from various plant families. Also for many Populus species and hybrids, adapted transformation protocols have been published. The standard protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of different Populus genotypes is the leaf-disc method. Here, we first describe the transfer of genes into poplar by using the Agrobacterium-based leaf disc methods. In addition, alternative basic transformation methods, namely, biolistic bombardment and PEG transformation of protoplasts, are also described. Further, we present improved poplar transformation protocols by simplifying the transformation procedure and optimizing tissue preparation and plant regeneration.
Key wordsPopulus Protoplast Regenerating callus Suspension culture Micro-explant Plant tissue culture
We would like to thank all technical assistants of the genome research group for valuable input, namely, Susanne Jelkmann, Denise Lehnhardt, Jennifer Lüneburg, Anke Schellhorn, and Doris Ebbinghaus.
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