Advertisement

Clinical Diagnosis of Influenza

  • Yoshinori ItoEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1836)

Abstract

Accurate diagnosis of influenza is critical for clinical management, infectious control, and public health actions to minimize the burden of disease. Rapid influenza diagnostic tests can detect circulating influenza viruses within 10–15 min and are widely used in clinical practice for diagnosing influenza. The sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic tests is relatively low at 50–70%, and such tests are only available for the diagnosis of circulating viruses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a representative molecular assay with very high sensitivity and specificity. This technique takes several hours, is labor intensive, and requires a specific instrument. The cell culture method is necessary for surveillance and can provide information regarding the emergence of drug resistance, minor antigenic variation of the virus, and a pandemic virus. However, it is not suitable for clinical decisions because it takes several days or longer to obtain a positive result.

Key words

Diagnosis Rapid antigen testing Rapid influenza diagnostic tests RT-PCR Cell culture 

References

  1. 1.
    Atmar RL, Lindstrom SE (2015) Influenza viruses. In: Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA (eds) Manual of clinical microbiology, 11th edn. ASM Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2015) Influenza. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS (eds) Red book: 2015 report of the committee on infectious diseases 30th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove VillageGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) Rapid diagnostic testing for influenza: information for clinical laboratory directors. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/diagnosis/rapidlab.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  4. 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Evaluation of 11 commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic tests – United States, 2011–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61:873–876Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sakai-Tagawa Y, Ozawa M, Yamada S et al (2014) Detection sensitivity of influenza rapid diagnostic tests. Microbiol Immunol 58:600–606.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12185 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) Guidance for clinicians on the use of RT-PCR and other molecular assays for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/diagnosis/molecular-assays.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) Clinical signs and symptoms of influenza. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/acip/clinical.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  8. 8.
    QuichVue Influenza A+B test Package insert (2016) Quidel. https://www.quidel.com/sites/default/files/product/documents/EF1063813EN00.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  9. 9.
    Dunn JJ (2015) Specimen collection, transport, and processing: virology. In: Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA (eds) Manual of clinical microbiology, 11th edn. ASM Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ginocchio CC, van Horn G, Harris P (2015) Reagents, stains, media, and cell cultures collection, transport, and processing: virology. In: Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA (eds) Manual of clinical microbiology 11. ASM Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations