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Model Legumes: Functional Genomics Tools in Medicago truncatula

  • Luis A. Cañas
  • José Pío Beltrán
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1822)

Abstract

Many researchers have sought along the last two decades a legume species that could serve as a model system for genetic studies to resolve specific developmental or metabolic processes that cannot be studied in other model plants. Nitrogen fixation, nodulation, compound leaf, inflorescence and plant architecture, floral development, pod formation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and other developmental and metabolic aspects are legume-specific or show important differences with those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, the most studied model plant. Mainly Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus were proposed in the 1990s as model systems due to their key attributes, diploid genome, autogamous nature, short generation times, small genome sizes, and both species can be readily transformed. After more than decade-long, the genome sequences of both species are essentially complete, and a series of functional genomics tools have been successfully developed and applied. Mutagens that cause insertions or deletions are being used in these model systems because these kinds of DNA rearrangements are expected to assist in the isolation of the corresponding genes by Target-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approaches. Different M. truncatula mutants have been obtained following γ-irradiation or fast neutron bombardment (FNB), ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl-methanesulfonate (EMS) treatments, T-DNA and activation tagging, use of the tobacco retrotransposon Tnt1 to produce insertional mutants, gene silencing by RNAi, and transient post-transcriptional gene silencing by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Emerging technologies of targeted mutagenesis and gene editing, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, could open a new era in this field. Functional genomics tools and phenotypic analyses of several mutants generated in M. truncatula have been essential to better understand differential aspects of legumes development and metabolism.

Keywords

Model legumes M. truncatula Functional genomics Targeted mutagenesis Reverse genetics Gene editing Legume development Secondary metabolites 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (http://www.idi.mineco.gob.es/portal/site/MICINN) grant BIO2016-75485-R.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIC-UPV, Institute for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology (IBMCP)ValenciaSpain

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