High-Throughput Extraction and Detection of Drugs in Urine: Parallel Sampling with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) Fibers Coupled with Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) Detection
Determination of drugs of abuse in urine is routinely accomplished by utilizing solid-phase extraction to isolate the drugs and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for their detection. Although robotic systems are employed, throughput is limited by the extraction process and GC chromatographic separation.
A method that utilizes an array of 12 solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for simultaneous isolation of drugs of abuse from urine is provided as a means to increase productivity. A SPME probe holder that permits movement of up to 12 fibers through the various steps of the extraction process in parallel is utilized. Use of an automated stage for fiber presentation into the ionization region of a Direct Analysis in Real Time equipped LC/MS facilitates rapid interrogation of each SPME.
Key wordsDART-MS Direct immersion Solid-phase microextraction Drug screening Toxicology
- 1.Pawliszyn J (1997) Solid phase microextraction: theory and practice. Wiley–VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 2.Stenerson KK, Young T, Shirey R et al (2016) Application of SPME using an overcoated PDMS-DVB fiber to the extraction of pesticides from spaghetti sauce: method evaluation and comparison to QuEChERS. LCGC N Am 34(7):500–509Google Scholar
- 6.Jagerdeo E, Abdel-Rehim M (2009) Screening of cocaine and its metabolites in human urine samples by direct analysis in real-time source coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry after online preconcentration utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 20:891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar