Expression Profiling of Differentially Regulated Genes in Fanconi Anemia

  • Binita Zipporah E
  • Kavitha Govarthanan
  • Pavithra Shyamsunder
  • Rama S. VermaEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1783)


Gene expression analysis mainly helps to study gene quantification methods by using various downstream detection approaches like imaging, amplification, probe hybridization, or sequencing. With respect to DNA, which is less static, mRNA levels vary over time, between cell types under divergent conditions. Gene expression analysis is principally focused on determination of mRNA levels transcribed from DNA. DNA microarrays are one of the robust and powerful tools to detect changes in multiple transcripts in larger cohorts in parallel. The basic principle of DNA microarray hybridization is complementary base pairing of single-stranded nucleic-acid sequences. On a microarray platform (also called a chip), known sequences called targets are attached at fixed locations (spots) to a solid surface such as glass using robotic spotting. Since a large number of samples (variables) are used in a typical hybridization experiment, which often leads to impreciseness for example, target mRNA transcribed from the same source should be identical every time. In such cases, developing an optimized protocol for microarray platform to study the expression profiling of differentially regulated genes is a challenging task. Thus genome-wide expression array analysis yields data about candidate genes that may be involved in disease acquisition progression, and helps in better understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. In this chapter we describe in detail the microarray technique, a well-accepted method for understanding the development and progression of Fanconi anemia (FA), a genetic disorder which is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and a predisposition to cancer.

Key words

Microarray mRNA Gene expression Hybridization Transcription Chip 



The authors acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, GOI for funding and IIT Madras for infrastructure.

Conflict of interest

The authors whose names are listed certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Binita Zipporah E
    • 1
  • Kavitha Govarthanan
    • 1
  • Pavithra Shyamsunder
    • 2
  • Rama S. Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Lab, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Cancer Science InstituteNUSSingaporeSingapore

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