Advertisement

Measuring Canopy Gas Exchange Using CAnopy Photosynthesis and Transpiration Systems (CAPTS)

  • Qingfeng Song
  • Xin-Guang Zhu
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1770)

Abstract

Canopy photosynthesis (Ac), rather than leaf photosynthesis, is critical to gaining higher biomass production in the field because the daily or seasonal integrals of Ac correlate with the daily or seasonal integrals of biomass production. The canopy photosynthesis and transpiration measurement system (CAPTS) was developed to enable measurement of canopy photosynthetic CO2 uptake, transpiration, and respiration rates. CAPTS continuously records the CO2 concentration, water vapor concentration, air temperature, air pressure, air relative humidity, and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) inside the chamber, which can be used to derive CO2 and H2O fluxes of a canopy covered by the chamber. Here we describe the protocol of using CAPTS to perform experiments on rice (Oryza sativa L.) in paddy field, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in upland field, and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in pots.

Key words

Automatic canopy chamber CAPTS Gas exchange Canopy photosynthesis Canopy transpiration Canopy respiration Rice Wheat Tobacco 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China young scientist grant (grant # 31501240) to QS and open funding from State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice (grant #2016KF06) to QS, the Chinese Academy of Sciences strategic leading project (XDA08020301) to XZ, and the CAS-CSIRO collaboration grant (GJHZ1501) to XZ.

References

  1. 1.
    Song Q, Zhang G, Zhu X-G (2013) Optimal crop canopy architecture to maximise canopy photosynthetic CO2 uptake under elevated CO2- a theoretical study using a mechanistic model of canopy photosynthesis. Funct Plant Biol 40:109–124. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP12056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Song Q, Chu C, MAJ P, Zhu X-G (2016) Genetics-based dynamic systems model of canopy photosynthesis: the key to improve light and resource use efficiencies for crops. Food Energy Secur 5:18–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/fes3.74 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Held AA, Steduto P, Orgaz F et al (1990) Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber. Theor Appl Climatol 42:203–213. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00865980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McMillen RT (1988) An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 43:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bugbee B (1992) Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation. Hortscience 27:770–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Long SP, Farage PK, Garcia RL (1996) Measurement of leaf and canopy photosynthetic CO2 exchange in the field. J Exp Bot 47:1629–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dragoni D, Lakso AN, Piccioni RM (2005) Transpiration of apple trees in a humid climate using heat pulse sap flow gauges calibrated with whole-canopy gas exchange chambers. Agric For Meteorol 130:85–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Graydon JA, St Louis VL, Lindberg SE et al (2006) Investigation of mercury exchange between forest canopy vegetation and the atmosphere using a new dynamic chamber. Environ Sci Technol 40:4680–4688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burkart S, Manderscheid R, Weigel H-J (2007) Design and performance of a portable gas exchange chamber system for CO2- and H2O-flux measurements in crop canopies. Environ Exp Bot 61:25–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.02.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Muller J, Eschenroder A, Diepenbrock W (2009) Through-flow chamber CO2/H2O canopy gas exchange system—Construction, microclimate, errors, and measurements in a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) field. Agric For Meteorol 149:214–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.08.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reicosky DC (1990) Canopy gas exchange in the field: Closed chambers. Remote Sens Rev 5:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wagner SW, Reicosky DC (1992) Closed-chamber effects on leaf temperature, canopy photosynthesis, and evapotranspiration. Agron J 84:731–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steduto P, Cetinkoku O, Albrizio R, Kanber R (2002) Automated closed-system canopy-chamber for continuous field-crop monitoring of CO2 and H2O fluxes. Agric For 111:171–186Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pérez-Priego O, Testi L, Orgaz F, Villalobos FJ (2010) A large closed canopy chamber for measuring CO2 and water vapour exchange of whole trees. Environ Exp Bot 68:131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dugas WA, Fritschen LJ, Gay LW et al (1991) Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, and portable chamber measurements of sensible and latent heat flux over irrigated spring wheat. Agric For Meteorol 56:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dugas WA, Reicosky DC, Kiniry JR (1997) Chamber and micrometeorological measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes for three C4 grasses. Agric For Meteorol 83:113–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(96)02346-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dugas WA (1993) Micrometeorological and chamber measurements of CO2 flux from bare soil. Agric For Meteorol 67:115–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(93)90053-KCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Angell RF, Svejcar T, Bates J et al (2001) Bowen ratio and closed chamber carbon dioxide flux measurements over sagebrush steppe vegetation. Agric For Meteorol 108:153–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(01)00227-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson DA, Saliendra NZ, Walker JW, Hendrickson JR (2003) Bowen ratio versus canopy chamber CO2 fluxes on sagebrush rangeland. J Range Manage 56:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peng S, Krieg DR (1991) Single leaf and canopy photosynthesis response to plant age in cotton. Agron J 83:704–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barthel M, Sturm P, Gentsch L, Knohl A (2010) Technical note: a combined soil/canopy chamber system for tracing δ 13C in soil respiration after a 13CO2 canopy pulse labelling. Biogeosci Discuss 7:1603–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hileman DR, Huluka G, Kenjige PK et al (1994) Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration of field-grown cotton exposed to free-air CO2: enrichment (FACE) and differential irrigation. Agric For Meteorol 70:189–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wagner SW, Reicosky DC, Alessi RS (1997) Regression models for calculating gas fluxes measured with a closed chamber. Agron J 89:279–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Song Q, Xiao H, Xiao X, Zhu X-G (2016) A new canopy photosynthesis and transpiration measurement system (CAPTS) for canopy gas exchange research. Agric For Meteorol 217:101–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baker JT, Gitz DC, Lascano RJ (2014) Field evaluation of open system chambers for measuring whole canopy gas exchanges. Agron J 106:537–544. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2013.0449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and EcologyChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Shanghai Institutes for Biological SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations