RPE Visual Cycle and Biochemical Phenotypes of Mutant Mouse Models
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of polarized epithelial cells which plays many important roles for visual function. One of such roles is production of visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle. The visual cycle consists of biochemical processes for regenerating chromophore by a collective action of the RPE and photoreceptor. Photoreceptors harbor the G protein-coupled receptors, opsin which enables to receive light when it bounds to 11-cis-retinal. With absorption of a photon of light, 11-cis-retinal photoisomerizes to all-trans-retinal. All-trans-retinal reduces to all-trans-retinol in the photoreceptor and further recycles back to 11-cis-retinal in the RPE. Acyltransferases and isomerohydrolase(s) along with retinol dehydrogenases sequentially convert all-trans-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in the RPE. Dysfunctions of any retinoid cycle enzymes in the RPE can cause retinal diseases. Phenotyping RPE functions by the use of mutant mouse models will provide great detailed biochemical insights of the visual cycle and further manipulative strategies to protect against retinal degeneration. Here, we describe biochemical analyses of the visual cycle in mouse models using RPE cells.
Key wordsRPE Visual cycle Retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) RDH5 RDH10
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