Advanced Contrast Agents for Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Based on Nanotechnology
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments. The contrast agent field is currently moving to improve the performance of these molecules by incorporating the advantages that modern nanotechnology offers. These include, mainly, the possibilities to combine imaging and therapeutic capabilities over the same theranostic platform or improve the targeting efficiency in vivo by molecular engineering of the nanostructures. In this review, we provide an introduction to multimodal imaging methods in biomedicine, the sub-nanometric imaging agents previously used and the development of advanced multimodal and theranostic imaging agents based in nanotechnology. We conclude providing some illustrative examples from our own laboratories, including recent progress in theranostic formulations of magnetoliposomes containing ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids to treat inflammatory diseases, or the use of stealth liposomes engineered with a pH-sensitive nanovalve to release their cargo specifically in the acidic extracellular pH microenvironment of tumors.
Key wordsImaging agents Image Guided Drug Delivery Magnetic Resonance Imaging Nanotechnology Positron Emission Tomography Single Photon Emission Tomography Theranostic agents X-Ray computed tomography
Authors are indebted to Dr. Pilar López-Larrubia CSIC for the careful reading of the manuscript and the valuable comments provided, Mrs. Teresa Navarro CSIC for granting access to CSIC small animal MRI facilities and expert technical assistance during the MRI acquisitions, and to Mr. Javier Pérez CSIC for professional drafting of the illustrations.
Financial statement: This work was supported in part by grants SAF2014-53739-R and S2010/BMD-2349 to SC and grant CTQ2013-47669-R to PB. DC held postdoctoral contracts from Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC. Funding sources were not involved in the design of the study, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the report nor in the decision to submit the article for publication.
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