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Introduction to Cancer Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future

  • David Bakhshinyan
  • Ashley A. Adile
  • Maleeha A. Qazi
  • Mohini Singh
  • Michelle M. Kameda-Smith
  • Nick Yelle
  • Chirayu Chokshi
  • Chitra Venugopal
  • Sheila K. SinghEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1692)

Abstract

The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates the existence of a small population of cancer cells with intrinsic properties allowing for resistance to conventional radiochemotherapy regiments and increased metastatic potential. Clinically, the aggressive nature of CSCs has been shown to correlate with increased tumor recurrence, metastatic spread, and overall poor patient outcome across multiple cancer subtypes. Traditionally, isolation of CSCs has been achieved through utilization of cell surface markers, while the functional differences between CSCs and remaining tumor cells have been described through proliferation, differentiation, and limiting dilution assays. The generated insights into CSC biology have further highlighted the importance of studying intratumoral heterogeneity through advanced functional assays, including CRISPR-Cas9 screens in the search of novel targeted therapies. In this chapter, we review the discovery and characterization of cancer stem cells populations within several major cancer subtypes, recent developments of novel assays used in studying therapy resistant tumor cells, as well as recent developments in therapies targeted at cancer stem cells.

Key words

Cancer stem cells Lung cancer Colon cancer Leukemia Breast cancer Brain cancer CRISPR Immunotherapy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Bakhshinyan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashley A. Adile
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maleeha A. Qazi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohini Singh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michelle M. Kameda-Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nick Yelle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chirayu Chokshi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chitra Venugopal
    • 1
    • 3
  • Sheila K. Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research InstituteMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning and Discovery, Stem Cell and Cancer Research InstituteMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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