The present method describes the procedure to fabricate calcium phosphate foams with suitable open porosity, pore size, and composition to perform three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures with the objective to simulate the bone tissue microenvironment in vitro. Foams with two compositions but equivalent porosity can be fabricated. On the one hand, hydroxyapatite foams obtained by hydrolysis at 37 °C, with microstructure that mimics the small crystal size of the mineral component of bones, and on the other hand, beta tricalcium phosphate foams with polygonal grains obtained by sintering at 1100 °C. In the first part of the chapter the calcium phosphate foams are briefly described. Afterwards, the foaming process is described in detail, including alternatives to overcome processing problems than can arise. Finally, insights are provided on how to perform 3D cell cultures using the calcium phosphate foams as substrates.
Calcium phosphate foam Hydroxyapatite Tricalcium phosphate Bone model Cell culture Three-dimensional Osteoblast Tissue engineering Scaffold
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie and it is cofinanced by the South Moravian Region under grant agreement no. 665860. We also thank the Spanish Government for financial support through the Project MAT2015-65601-R, co-funded by the EU through European Regional Development Funds. Support for the research of MPG was received through the “ICREA Academia” award for excellence in research, funded by the Generalitat de Catalunya. The project CEITEC 2020 (LQ1601) was supported from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the National Sustainability Programme II.
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