Nanoparticles (NPs) in biotechnology hold great promise for revolutionizing medical treatments and therapies. In order to bring NPs into clinical application there is a number of preclinical in vitro and in vivo tests, which have to be applied before. The initial in vitro evaluation includes a detailed physicochemical characterization as well as biocompatibility tests, among others. For determination of biocompatibility at the cellular level, the correct choice of the in vitro assay as well as NP pretreatment is absolutely essential. There are a variety of assay technologies available that use standard plate readers to measure metabolic markers to estimate the number of viable cells in culture. Each cell viability assay has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the assay method chosen, the major factors critical for reproducibility and success include: (1) choosing the right assay after comparing optical NP properties with the read-out method of the assay, (2) verifying colloidal stability of NPs in cell culture media, (3) preparing a sterile and stable NP dispersion in cell culture media used in the assay, (4) using a tightly controlled and consistent cell model allowing appropriate characterization of NPs. This chapter will briefly summarize these different critical points, which can occur during biocompatibility screening applications of NPs.
Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity assay Impedance spectroscopy Colloidal dispersion of nanoparticles
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
The authors kindly thank the Fraunhofer Society and the Bavarian State ministry for economy and media, energy and technology (Az.:VI/3-6622/453/12) for financially supporting the work.
Moore TL, Rodriguez-Lorenzo L, Hirsch V et al (2015) Nanoparticle colloidal stability in cell culture media and impact on cellular interactions. Chem Soc Rev 44(17):6287–6305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Groeber F, Engelhardt L, Egger S et al (2015) Impedance spectroscopy for the non-destructive evaluation of in vitro epidermal models. Pharmaceut Res 32(5):1845–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allouni ZE, Cimpan MR, Høl PJ et al (2009) Agglomeration and sedimentation of TiO2 nanoparticles in cell culture medium. Colloid Surf B: Biointerfaces 68(1):83–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bihari P, Vippola M, Schultes S et al (2008) Optimized dispersion of nanoparticles for biological in vitro and in vivo studies. Particle Fibre Toxicol 5(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho EC, Zhang Q, Xia Y (2011) The effect of sedimentation and diffusion on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles. Nat Nano 6(6):385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guiot C, Spalla O (2013) Stabilization of TiO2 nanoparticles in complex medium through a pH adjustment protocol. Environ Sci Technol 47(2):1057–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lakshminarasimhan N, Kim W, Choi W (2008) Effect of the agglomerated state on the photocatalytic hydrogen production with in situ agglomeration of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 112(51):20451–20457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koch S, Kessler M, Mandel K et al (2016) Polycarboxylate ethers: The key towards non-toxic TiO2 nanoparticle stabilisation in physiological solutions. Colloid Surf B: Biointerfaces 143:7–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar