An enzyme-free redox potential sensor using off-chip extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) with a ferrocenyl-alkanethiol modified gold electrode has been used to quantify uric acid concentration in human serum and urine. Hexacyanoferrate (II) and (III) ions are used as redox reagent. The potentiometric sensor measures the interface potential on the ferrocene immobilized gold electrode, which is modulated by the redox reaction between uric acid and hexacyanoferrate ions. The device shows a near Nernstian response to uric acid and is highly specific to uric acid in human serum and urine. The interference that comes from glucose, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and hemoglobin is negligible in the normal concentration range of these interferents. The sensor also exhibits excellent long term reliability and is regenerative. This extended gate field effect transistor based sensor is promising for point-of-care detection of uric acid due to the small size, low cost, and low sample volume consumption.
Extended gate FET Redox Enzyme-free Uric acid Potentiometric sensor Ferrocenyl-alkanethiol
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
W.G. acknowledges the financial support from Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Student Research Fellowship and Pennsylvania State University. The work was supported in part by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under grants HDTRA1-10-1-0037 and HDTRA-1-12-1-0042, and by the U. S. Army Research Laboratory and the U. S. Army Research Office under contract/grant number MURI W911NF-11-1-0024.
Lakshmi D, Whitcombe MJ, Davis F, Sharma PS, Prasad BB (2011) Electrochemical detection of uric acid in mixed and clinical samples: a review. Electroanalysis 23(2):305–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spitsin S, Koprowski H (2008) Role of uric acid in multiple sclerosis. In: Advances in multiple sclerosis and experimental demyelinating diseases, vol 318. Springer, Berlin, pp 325–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folin O, Macallum AB (1912) New method for the (colorimetric) determination of uric acid in urine. J Biol Chem 13(3):363–369Google Scholar
Sanders GTB, Pasman AJ, Hoek FJ (1980) Determination of uric-acid with uricase and peroxidase. Clin Chim Acta 101(2–3):299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao YS, Yang XY, Lu W, Liao H, Liao F (2009) Uricase based methods for determination of uric acid in serum. Mikrochim Acta 164(1–2):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ali SMU et al (2011) Selective potentiometric determination of uric acid with uricase immobilized on ZnO nanowires. Sens Actuators B Chem 152(2):241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakuma R, Nishina T, Kitamura M (1987) Deproteinizing methods evaluated for determination of uric-acid in serum by reversed-phase liquid-chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Clin Chem 33(8):1427–1430Google Scholar
Lim CK, Pryde DE, Lawson AM (1978) Specific Method for determining uric-acid in serum using high-performance liquid-chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 149:711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xue Y et al (2011) The comparison of different gold nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets hybrid nanocomposites in electrochemical performance and the construction of a sensitive uric acid electrochemical sensor with novel hybrid nanocomposites. Biosens Bioelectron 29(1):102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen JC et al (2005) A disposable single-use electrochemical sensor for the detection of uric acid in human whole blood. Sens Actuators B Chem 110(2):364–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilbault GG, Lubrano GJ (1973) An enzyme electrode for the amperometric determination of glucose. Anal Chim Acta 64(3):439–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adams RE, Betso SR, Carr PW (1976) Electrochemical Ph-stat and controlled current coulometric acid-base analyzer. Anal Chem 48(13):1989–1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raj CR, Ohsaka T (2003) Voltammetric detection of uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid at a gold electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of heteroaromatic thiol. J Electroanal Chem 540:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zen JM, Chen YJ, Hsu CT, Ting YS (1997) Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated chemically modified electrode for the detection of uric acid in the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid. Electroanalysis 9(13):1009–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toghill KE, Xiao L, Phillips MA, Compton RG (2010) The non-enzymatic determination of glucose using an electrolytically fabricated nickel microparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode or nickel foil electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 147(2):642–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guan W, Duan X, Reed MA (2014) Highly specific and sensitive non-enzymatic determination of uric acid in serum and urine by extended gate field effect transistor sensors. Biosens Bioelectron 51:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morin LG (1974) Determination of serum urate by direct acid Fe3+ reduction or by absorbance change (at 293 nm) on oxidation of urate with alkaline ferricyanide. Clin Chem 20(1):51–56Google Scholar
Dubois H, Delvoux B, Ehrhardt V, Greiling H (1989) An enzymic assay for uric-acid in serum and urine compared with HPLC. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 27(3):151–156Google Scholar