A Reagentless, Screen-Printed Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Glutamate in Food and Clinical Applications

  • G. Hughes
  • R. M. Pemberton
  • P. R. Fielden
  • J. P. Hart
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1572)


A reagentless biosensor has been successfully developed to measure glutamate in food and clinical samples. The enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and the cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are fully integrated onto the surface of a Meldola’s Blue screen-printed carbon electrode (MB-SPCE). The biological components are immobilized by utilizing unpurified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT’s) mixed with the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT), which are drop-coated onto the surface of the MB-SPCE in a layer-by-layer fashion. Meldola’s Blue mediator is also incorporated into the biosensor cocktail in order to increase and facilitate electron shuttling between the reaction layers and the surface of the electrode. The loadings of each component are optimized by using amperometry in stirred solution at a low fixed potential of +0.1 V. The optimum temperature and pH are also determined using this technique. Quantification of glutamate in real samples is performed using the method of standard addition. The method of standard addition involves the addition of a sample containing an unknown concentration of glutamate, followed by additions of known concentrations of glutamate to a buffered solution in the cell. The currents generated by each addition are then plotted and the resulting line is extrapolated in order to determine the concentration of glutamate in the sample (Pemberton et al., Biosens Bioelectron 24:1246–1252, 2009). This layer-by-layer approach holds promise as a generic platform for the fabrication of reagentless biosensors.

Key words

Glutamate Reagentless Carbon-nanotubes Meldola’s Blue Screen-printed carbon electrode Glutamate dehydrogenase 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Hughes
    • 1
  • R. M. Pemberton
    • 1
  • P. R. Fielden
    • 2
  • J. P. Hart
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied SciencesUniversity of the West of England, BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

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