Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates for Applications in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Media

  • Ipsita Roy
  • Joyeeta Mukherjee
  • Munishwar N. GuptaEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1504)


Extensive cross-linking of a precipitate of a protein by a cross-linking reagent (glutaraldehyde has been most commonly used) creates an insoluble enzyme preparation called cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). CLEAs show high stability and performance in conventional aqueous as well as nonaqueous media. These are also stable at fairly high temperatures. CLEAs with more than one kind of enzyme activity can be prepared, and such CLEAs are called combi-CLEAs or multipurpose CLEAs. Extent of cross-linking often influences their morphology, stability, activity, and enantioselectivity.


Cross-linking agents Glutaraldehyde Cross-linked enzyme aggregates Immobilization Thermal stability Enantioselectivity 



This work was supported by funds obtained from Department of Science and Technology [Grant No.: SR/SO/BB-68/2010] and Department of Biotechnology [Grant No.: BT/PR14103/BRB/10/808/2010], both Government of India organizations. Finally, we thank past members of our research group; Dr. Kalyani Mondal, Dr. Shweta Shah, Dr. Abir Majumder, Dr. Sohel Dalal, and Veena Singh, whose work has been described/quoted in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ipsita Roy
    • 1
  • Joyeeta Mukherjee
    • 2
  • Munishwar N. Gupta
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)PunjabIndia
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemical Engineering and BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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