RNA Vaccines pp 223-236 | Cite as

Discovery and Subtyping of Neo-Epitope Specific T-Cell Responses for Cancer Immunotherapy: Addressing the Mutanome

  • Mustafa Diken
  • Mathias Vormehr
  • Christian Grunwitz
  • Sebastian Kreiter
  • Özlem Türeci
  • Ugur Sahin
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1499)


Cancer accumulates 10s to 1000s of genomic mutations of which a fraction is immunogenic and may serve as an Achilles’ heel of tumor cells. Mutation-specific T cells can recognize these antigens and destroy malignant cells. Strategies to immunotherapeutically address individual tumor mutations employing peptide or mRNA based vaccines are now actively investigated in mice and humans. An important step of determining the therapeutic potential of a mutanome vaccine is the detection of mutation reactive T-cell responses. In this chapter we provide protocols to identify and subtype mutation specific T cells in mice based on IFN-γ ELISpot and flow cytometry.


mRNA Neo-epitopes Detection and subtyping of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses 



The study was supported by the CI3 excellence cluster program of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Diken
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mathias Vormehr
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christian Grunwitz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sebastian Kreiter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Özlem Türeci
    • 1
  • Ugur Sahin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.TRON – Translational Oncology at the University Medical CenterJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  2. 2.Biopharmaceutical New Technologies (BioNTech) CorporationMainzGermany
  3. 3.Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI)MainzGermany

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