Viral Injection and Cranial Window Implantation for In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging
Two-photon (2P) imaging has proven to be a powerful tool for investigating neural structure and function both in brain slices and in intact systems. In vivo 2P imaging presents significant challenges in sample preparation, which are exacerbated in non-murine species. Here, we describe procedures for the effective virally mediated labeling of neurons and for the implantation of cranial windows for imaging. The procedures described here are applicable to a range of species, including mice, and are routinely used in ferrets and tree shrews to provide large-scale labeling of cortical volumes and high-quality imaging data.
Key wordsTwo-photon In vivo Microscopy Imaging Viral expression Genetically encoded calcium sensor
We would like to thank Dominique Ouimet for helpful discussions on surgical procedures, Yishai Elyada for the headplate design and discussions on cranial window implants, and Daniel Wilson for images of dendritic spines and for comments on this manuscript.