The Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Experimental Brain Trauma: Overview, Research Applications, and Protocol

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1462)


Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model. In accordance with the recent efforts to promote high-quality evidence through the reporting of common data elements (CDEs), relevant study details—that should be reported in CCI studies—will be noted.

Key words

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Experimental brain injury Preclinical Animal model Controlled cortical impact (CCI) Common data elements (CDE) 



Support for this chapter comes from the following government funding sources: Department of Veterans Affairs grant RR&D B1127-I, NIH-NINDS grant R01-NS079061, and NIH-NINR grants 1F31NR014957 and T32NR009759. Additional support for this chapter comes from the following foundations and professional societies: The Pittsburgh Foundation, Sigma Theta Tau International Eta Chapter, the International Society for Nurses in Genetics, and the American Association of Neuroscience Nursing/Neuroscience Nursing Foundation. We would also like to acknowledge Mr. Michael D. Farmer for his time in generating the figures and Mrs. Marilyn K. Farmer for her continued editorial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Safar Center for Resuscitation ResearchUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.V.A. Pittsburgh Healthcare SystemPittsburghUSA

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