Focal Cerebral Ischemia by Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Sheep: Surgical Technique, Clinical Imaging, and Histopathological Results

  • Björn NitzscheEmail author
  • Henryk Barthel
  • Donald Lobsien
  • Johannes Boltze
  • Vilia Zeisig
  • Antje Y. Dreyer
Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 116)


According to the recommendation of international expert committees, large animal stroke models are demanded for preclinical research. Based on a brief introduction to the ovine cranial anatomy, a sheep model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) will be described in this chapter. The model was particularly designed to verify several therapeutic strategies during both, acute and long-term studies, but is also feasible for development of diagnostic procedures. Further, exemplary application of imaging procedures and imaging data analyses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are described. The chapter also includes recommendations for appropriate animal housing and medication.

Key words

Large animal model Sheep Experimental neurosurgery Craniotomy Experimental stroke Middle cerebral artery occlusion MRI PET 



The authors want to thank Dr. Karl-Titus Hoffmann, professor of neuroradiology, and Dr. Osama Sabri, professor of nuclear medicine, for the allowance to use the scanners in their departments at Leipzig University. The authors are further grateful to Dr. Uwe Gille, Dr. Johannes Seeger, and Dr. Heinz-Adolf Schoon, professors at the Faculty for Veterinary Medicine at Leipzig University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Björn Nitzsche
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Henryk Barthel
    • 2
  • Donald Lobsien
    • 3
  • Johannes Boltze
    • 4
    • 5
  • Vilia Zeisig
    • 2
  • Antje Y. Dreyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell TherapyFraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and ImmunologyLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Department of Medical Cell TechnologyFraunhofer Research Institution for Marine BiotechnologyLübeckGermany
  5. 5.Neuroscience CenterMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolCharlestownUSA

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